Towards the definition of an indoor air quality index for residential buildings based on long- and short-term exposure limit values

In the Framework of the IEA EBC Annex68 Subtask 1 working subject, we aimed at defining an indoor air quality index for residential buildings based on long- and short-term exposure limit values. This paper compares 8 indoor air quality indices (IEI, LHVP, CLIM2000, BILGA, GAPI, IEI Taiwan, QUAD-BBC and DALY) by using the French IAQ Observatory database that includes pollutant concentration measurements performed in 567 dwellings between 2003 and 2005. This comparison allows to make a relevant analysis of each index and determines their pros and cons i.e.

Development of a procedure for estimating the parameters of mechanistic VOC emission source models from chamber testing data

In order to evaluate the impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from building materials on the indoor air quality beyond the standard chamber test conditions and test period, mechanistic emission source models have been developed in the past. However, very limited data are available for the required model parameters including the initial concentration (Cm0), in-material diffusion coefficient (Dm), partition coefficient (Kma), and convective mass transfer coefficient (km).

Ventilation in low energy residences – a survey on code requirements, implementation barriers and operational challenges from seven European countries

This paper reports the results of an interview survey conducted among different stakeholders involved in design, installation and operation of residential ventilation in seven European countries. In total 44 interviews were performed. The results provide a valuable snapshot of current practices and insights into potential barriers and challenges regarding installation of mechanical ventilation in low-energy residences to maintain high indoor air quality (IAQ). The results show that mechanical ventilation with heat recovery is becoming a common choice in new low energy residences in Europe.

Proposed Metrics For IAQ in Low-Energy Residential Buildings

The overall objective of the International Energy Agency project, Energy in Buildings and Communities Annex 68 "Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low-energy Residential Buildings,"1 is to provide a scientific basis for optimal and practically applicable design and control strategies for high IAQin residential buildings. An obstacle for close inte­gration of energy and IAQstrategies in building design and optimization is the lack of an index that can quantitatively describe indoor air quality (IAQ) and be compared with indices that describe energy performance.

A Pre-assessment and Control Tool for Indoor Air Quality (PACT-IAQ) Simulation in Actual Buildings

This study introduced a pre-assessment and control tool for indoor air quality (PACT-IAQ) which aimed at multiple pollutant concentrations simulations, pollutant loads estimations and decoration design scheme optimization. Multiple emission sources, sinks, ventilation, pollutant dissemination, and the combined effects of temperature and humidity on material emissions were considered in the tool. Two versions, namely the single zone and multi-zone models, were included in the tool.

A simulation study of ventilation and indoor gaseous pollutant transport under different window/door opening behaviors

The window/door opening behavior of occupants is a very important factor in determining the airflows and ventilation conditions in buildings, on which indoor pollutant concentration and transport are highly dependent. A two-room residence model was simulated in this study to analyze the airflow characteristics and pollutant transport under different window/door opening behaviors. Airflows were unidirectional and the residence could not be treated as a well-mixed zone when there were no temperature differences.

The combined effects of temperature and humidity on initial emittable formaldehyde concentration of a medium-density fiberboard

Individual effects of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from manufactured fiberboards have been studied previously, but their combined effects and possible correlation with initial emittable concentration (C0) of building materials have not been reported yet. This paper investigated their combined effects on C0 theoretically from microcosmic perspective. Total formaldehyde content related to humidity and formaldehyde molecular phases affected by temperature in the porous material were considered.

The effect of humidity on formaldehyde emission parameters of a medium-density fiberboard: Experimental observations and correlations

Initial emittable concentration (C0), diffusion coefficient (Dm) and partition coefficient (K) are the three key emission parameters determining formaldehyde emissions from “dry” building materials. Previous studies of humidity effect on formaldehyde emissions were mainly focused on the analysis of steady-state emission rates or concentrations, whereas humidity effects on emission parameters were seldom discussed.

Evaluation of different thermal models in EnergyPlus for calculating moisture effects on building energy consumption in different climate conditions

Building energy simulation is essential for most architectural design projects. Many models have been developed to predict the indoor air temperature and relative humidity as well as the building’s heating and cooling loads. However, in most building energy analysis the calculation of heat conduction through walls usually neglects the transport and storage of moisture in porous building materials, and the interaction between hygrothermal transfer and airflow inside the building.

Models for residential indoor pollution loads due to material emissions under dynamic temperature and humidity conditions

The IEA EBC Annex 68 project on “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” has been recently completed. The project considered indoor air pollution loads in dwellings, particularly how such pollutants are emitted in dependency of the hygrothermal conditions: temperature, moisture and air flows. Thus, a proper understanding of the mutual interactions between hygrothermal conditions and pollutants was needed to obtain optimal paradigms for demand-controlled ventilation.