Nielsen P.V., Topp C., Sonnichsen M., Andersen H.
Bibliographic info:
Ashrae 2005 Winter meeting, technical and symposium papers, Orlando, February 2005

The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized as a passive displacement flow with a downward direction in areas without thermal load. A variant of the system is supplied with horizontal jets from openings in the textile terminal to generate a mixing flow in the room. Both systems are compared with mixing ventilation based on a wall-mounted diffuser and with displacement ventilation with a wall-mounted low velocity diffuser.
The design of the air distribution is in all four cases based on flow elements for the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption, and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room. The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analyzing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems.
The paper shows that an air distribution system based on textile terminals is able to generate comfortable velocity and temperature conditions at the same thermal load as can be obtained by both a mixing ventilation system with a wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low-velocity wall-mounted diffuser.
The comparison is extended by considering both the local discomfort caused by draft rating and the percentage of dissatisfied due to the temperature gradient when this is relevant to the systems. The draft rating is very low for the low impulse system (textile termimal) and the temperature gradient is also low because of the high level of room air mixing.