Air leakage and pressure measurements on two occupied houses.

Ventilation rates in two test home were measured using helium as a tracer gas. Pressure differences across the exterior walls of the house were recorded using pressure taps. Gives results for air infiltration tests and the calculated air infiltration. Finds that during summer air infiltration rates varied approximately linearly with wind velocity. During the winter, the pattern and extent of air infiltration were influenced by both house stack action and furnace operation.

The neutral zone in ventilation

Gives theoretical discussion of the neutral zone in ventilation. Shows that the pressure difference tending to cause flow at any opening is proportional to the vertical distance of that opening from the neutral zone and that the amount of air that may be passed by a given opening is proportional to the square root of the vertical distance of that opening from the neutral zone.Discusses the position of the neutral zone in a building which is governed by the relative amount of opening at top and bottom and by the inside to outside temperature difference at different levels.

Air leakage in split-level residences

Reports investigation of air change rates in two residences using helium as a tracer gas. Gives results of measured air change rates, wind speed and direction and internal to external temperature difference. Uses statistical method to compare results from the two residences and concludes that temperature coefficients were statistically different but that wind coefficients were not. Finds high dependence of infiltration rates on indoor to outdoor temperature difference and that values for air leakage obtained from current methods of estimation were lower than those actually experienced.

An examination of radioisotope techniques for the measurement of ventilation rate.

Examines the use of radioisotope tracers to measure ventilation rates of simple and multiple enclosures. Discusses accuracy of the methods in relation to results obtained in an experimental room with controlled ventilation. Describes an instrument which measures ventilation rates directly, following release of aradioisotope tracer. Demonstrates its accuracy and operating advantages.

Retrofitting an existing wood-frame residence to reduce its heating and cooling energy requirements

Describes retrofitting a wood-frame residence in three stages to reduce its energy requirements for heating and cooling. The three retrofit stages comprised reducing air leaks; adding storm windows; and installing insulation in the floor ceiling andwalls. The house was extensively insulated to evaluate energy savings and changes in air infiltration rates. Concludes that retrofits produced only marginal reduction in air infiltration rates and attributes this to the original tight construction of the house.

Wind pressures on multi-storey buildings.

Describes experiments in a wind tunnel on a model of a tall building of rectangular plan to show the effects of variation in wind velocity with height and the variation of local wind pressures with angle of wind. Discusses the effect of rounding the corners of the building.

Air leakage due to stack effect in multi-storey buildings.

Explains forces causing stack effect in multi-storey buildings and suggests ways of reducing air leakage. Mentions that stack effect makes the operation of doors difficult and interferes with the operation of dampers.

A study of wind pressures on a single family dwelling in model and in full scale.

Compares wind pressures measured on a single-family dwelling with results obtained from a 1:50 scale model in a turbulent boundary layer. Shows that fluctuating components of surface pressures far exceeded mean or steady pressures and are well correlated over sizeable roof areas. Suggests that certain current provisions are marginal for tributary areas and excessive for localised area such as ridges, eaves and corners. Describes procedure for expressing loads on both localised and extended roof areas in terms of mean pressure coefficients and a peak factor.

Predicting air leakage for building design

Summarises research into air leakage. Describes field studies of air leakage of exterior walls, the heat loss caused by stack effect and smoke movement caused by wind and stack effect. Describes mathematical model for air leakage and flow patters of multi-storey buildings. Discusses implications of results on building design. NOTES general survey only.

Examination of the heat and air permeability of windows Untersuchung uber die Luft-und warme-durchlassigkeit von Fenstern

A study made to confirm the values given in german standard DIN 4701. considers theoretical natures of air permeability and the k-value as they concern windows. Finds that infiltration through windows without weather-stripping depends to such an extent on the quality of manufacture and fitting that essential differences between single-glazed, double-glazed and double windows scarcely exist. Finds no real difference between woodenand metal frames when new, but after normal wear and tear an average value of 3m(3)/h for each metre of gap at 1mm pressure difference is acceptable.

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