Whole building simulation may play a key role in the optimization and assessment of the market potential of new building components. In the SOLVENT Project, ESP-r was used for such purposes, in the case applied to a new reversible ventilated window. The innovative character of the window required the development of a specific simulation approach within ESP-r, in order to account for buoyancy in the air channel. A multi-zone approach with an air flow network was developed, and several variations studied.
Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-e selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The double-hung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was
Measurements of temperature and local heat flux were operated on a vertical surface, such as a window, equipped with louvers, such as those of a venetian blind, for different window temperatures, irradiation levels, louver to window spacings and louver angles. Results have been compared with calculations (see Airbase record # 14975). The comparison validates the numerical study.
This article presents the numerical study of the influence of louvers, such as those of a venetian blind, on heat transfer from an adjacent vertical surface, such as the indoor side of a window. The physical model used is described. Results show the influence on radiative and convective heat transfer, which were found as being of the same magnitude, of louver spacing, louver tip to window spacing, louver angle, window surface temperature and irradiation.
Measurement were operated in Ottawa’s Laurier House (an historical house built in 1878 now being a museum) to determine the temperature and humidity conditions under which condensation occurs on ‘historic’ windows. Results lead to recommendations for oper
The Solvent window was developed to improve visual and thermal comfort in sunny conditions. The glazing system realizes the conversion of short wave solar radiation to convective heat and long wave radiation.
This paper deals with the steady state simulations carried out with the CFD software Flovent along with dynamic building energy simulations using the ESP-r programme applied to three buildings (located in Ireland, Poland and Denmark) intended to be equipped with supply air windows coupled with passive stack ventilation systems. Supply air windows consist of two layers of glazing separated by a ventilated layer. Air enters the cavity at the bottom from outsides and enters the building at the top. Systems design from simulation results is discussed.
Describes a system designed to maintain good ventilation consisting of special window ventilators that permit a trickle air flow rate to pass and to maintain a background ventilation. The apparatus for measuring the characteristics of window grilles are described and the results obtained from some commercial window grilles discussed.
The potential of natural ventilation control techniques when applied to full scale buildings is investigated with the use of both experimental and theoretical tools. An outdoor test cell was used to conduct experiments and two window types (bottom hung and sliding) were tested in different configurations under various meteorological conditions. Describes how theoretical methods for calculating airflow rates through the windows were developed, based on the experimental results and specific modelling activities. On comparison, good agreement was observed.
States that condensation on windows is a major issue for building owners and managers. Tests were devised to counter the problems of sealing windows, test temperatures and cost and simulation testing for conventional testing procedures, and a database of windows that have undergone both tests and simulations for resistance to condensation was compiled. Three double hung windows of varying materials were tested as well as designs for air infiltration at several levels of airtightness.