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IEA ECBCS Annex 36 : retrofitting in educational buildings - REDUCE 25 case study reports from 10 different countries

The IEA ECBCS Annex 36 deals with the energy retrofit of educational buildings. Researchers from 10 participating countries from Europe and the US are collecting information on retrofit measures and case studies and are developing an energy concept adviser for technical retrofit measures. This internet-based computer tool for decision-makers is the main outcome of the annex. One of the most important inputs to the tool is the collection and assessment of case studies, which is also presented in a specific report.

A Matlab-based simulation tool for building thermal performance analysis

This paper presents the development of a simulation tool based on the Matlab computational environment for building temperature performance analysis with automatic control. The simulation tool contains mathematical models for buildings, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems, sensors, weather data and control algorithms. The building mathematical model is described in terms of statespace variables, with a lumped approach for the room air governing equations energy and mass balances. In this context, the simulation tool structure and components are explained.

TRNFLOW, a new tool for the modelling of heat, air and pollutant transport in building within TRNSYS

Modelling of buildings with natural or hybrid ventilation systems requires the coupling of a thermal and an air flow model because of the strong mutual impact of the thermal and the air flow behaviour. The newly developed tool TRNFlow is the complete integration of the multizone air flow and pollutant transport model COMIS [Dorer 2001] into the thermal multizone building module of the building and system simulation program TRNSYS [Klein 2000]. An internal solver algorithm using

Control of ventilation in buildings using Simbad building and HVAC toolbox

There is a growing need for more complex control of ventilation systems to satisfy energy and environmental issues. SIMBAD Toolbox (SIMulator of Buildings And Devices), developed in the SIMULINK graphical environment is a library of HVAC components models that is used in the field of

Etude des performances d'un système de ventilation hybride en France (Study of the performances of an hybrid ventilation system in France)

For that study, a classroom was modelled and a comparison of the performances of a specific hybrid ventilation system with a traditional mechanical system in terms of thermal comfort, indoor air quality concerning the CO2 concentration and energy consumption was made. The experiment was performed in different French cities, it permitted to draw some conclusions about the potential of such an hybrid system according to the main climate characteristics.

Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air ; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates

The changes in occurrence and the distribution of airborne fungi when they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air to the indoor air are not well-known. For that study, fungal samples were tested in different locations in the HVAC systems with a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. The results showed that the fungal species changed according to those locations.

Air flow and particle control with different ventilation system in a classroom

Istis normally assumed by designers that all pollutants in a displacement ventilation system follow the buoyant air flow into an upper zone, where they are evacuated. But studies have shown that it is not always true and that concentrations of pollutant particles can be found in the breathing zone. This study aims at designing a ventilation system that will minimize the respirable airborne particle in that breathing zone.

Measurement and simulation of indoor air quality and energy consumption in two Shangaï office buildings with variable air volume systems

For that study, computer simulations and calculations of outdoor airflow rates and indoor air quality were made in parallel with site measurements in two Shanga office buildings equipped with typical Variable Air Volume systems.In addition to those site measurements, electrical consumption was recorded. Simulations and calculations of the electrical consumption and energy cost were performed.The site recorded data and the simulations results have been then compared and analyzed.

Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute the indoor environment and what to do about it ? The European AIRLESS project

The objective of the European project AIRLESS was to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC systems and their components to be incorporated in codes and guidelines.This paper is a sum-up fo the first-phase of the AIRLESS project : definition of air pollution caused by HVAC systems, investigation to prevent this pollution and definition of strategies to keep away that pollution.

Measurements and computations of contaminant's distribution in an office environment

The dispersion of contaminants in an office environment has been investigated. The first experiment was made in a full-scale typical office equipped with two workstations located in the middle of the room and separated by a low-level partition, and the second experiment took place in a room separated in two halves with a low level partition, with one workstation at each corner. A constant injection of tracer gas allowed the measurement of the concentration of contaminant in the chamber for both the layouts.