Monitoring the effects of draught elimination.

Describes a retrofit carried out on a building of 36000 m3 volume in Northern Italy which eliminated air infiltration around windows using silicone caulking. The energy balance of the building was evaluated experimentally before and after the retrofit. Verifies the impact of unwanted air infiltration on a building's energy use. States that the analysis of the experimental data made it possible to extend the results obtained from town houses by other authors to apartment buildings.

Air circulation in buildings by the flow in networks method.

Infiltration heat loss has become more important in the energy loss of modern buildings. It depends on a variety of factors. Computer analysis points to the effect of storey number, ground plan features and exhaust ventilation systems. Different rooms exhibit infiltration heat loss maxima at different outdoor temperatures.

Ventilation heat losses in buildings. Calculation methods. Luftungsverluste in gebauden. Berechnungsmethode.

Describes a mathematical model for the detailed calculation of ventilation heat losses in buildings. The model takes account of the prevailing wind and buoyancy forces, the leakiness of the building facades and internal doors, and the effect of mechanical ventilation. Derives a simplified calculation method. The calculation results are presented as formulae, in numeric and graphical form. Presents results for a 70 m high residential building.

The infiltration component of ventilation in New Zealand houses.

The air infiltration component of house ventilation is calculated and discussed in relation to winter space heat losses and rneasures necessary to control moisture. The airtightness of 80 houses sampled from three major urban areas was inspected for association with location, external cladding materials, and design features such as the shape and complexity of the building envelope. A useful correlation of airtightness with envelope complexity emerged which gives a coarse but useful way of forecasting airtightness from building design information.

Tightness of pre-fabricated outer walls and its influence on heat demand in apartment dwellings.

Uses air leakage measurements in laboratory and site studies in Poland to define a power law relationship between pressure acting across the opening and flow rate, and explains the effects on heat loss calculations. Results of indoor climate measurements over a two year period are given. Describes use of a computer model to calculate heat demand of different ventilation systems. Real heat requirement is about 40% larger than the calculated values.

Analysis of heat loss by ventilation in the experimental low energy house in Kaiserslautern-Molschbach. Luftungswarmeverlust-untersuchungen am energieversuchshaus Kaiserslautern-Molschbach.

Ventilation heat losses have been investigated in an experimental low energy house with active and passive solar energy use and an auxiliary heater. A measuring method was developed and tested which gave the possibility of dispensing with long-duration tests in occupied dwellings. The heat losses are dependent on characteristic data of the room and the diminution of the room temperature with time. Measuring error is less than 10%.

Thermal effects of air leakages on the thermal performance of building structures.

Simulation of the thermal performance of a building to take account of uncontrolled infiltration shows that infiltrating air on a leakage path is efficiently warmed up, especially if infiltration flow rates are low. For allowable infiltration flow rates with respect to thermal comfort, (0.5 -0.7 dm3/sm), the heating is 25 - 60 per cent of the temperature difference between the outside and inside air. For the longest leakage path, the incoming air is even near to the room air temperature.

Ventilation heat loss in a detached one family house.

For optimum building design it is of importance to investigate the comfort and the energy conservation obtained with different types of ventilation systems and levels of airtightness of buildings. This could be achieved by aid of computer models based on full-scale and model measurements. In order to obtain experimental data as input data to such a computer model, an experimental, detached one-family house has been built near to Gothenburg on the Swedish west coast.

Heat losses from small houses due to wind influence.

The heat losses from small houses, due to transmission and ventilation, are estimated. The estimation i s based up on the house owness daily readings of electricity and water meters, and their notes on behaviour influencing the energy use. Consideration is taken to heat supply from insolation and from people. Hot water losses are calculated from use of water and use of household machinery. Besides the estimation of the heat losses, Q, wind and temperature in the area is registrated .

Window-opening behaviour in office buildings

In countries such as the United Kingdom that possess a temperate climate, the majority of buildings are not air-conditioned but depend upon natural ventilation and relatively simple heating systems. Openable windows are used to reduce the in