Characterization of residential air pollution from unvented kerosene heaters

Investigates the generation of pollutants from unvented convective and radiant kerosene heaters in a residence over a 3 month period. The measured concentrations of carbon monoxide were low. However, under the conditions of use which were studied concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, and CO2 reached or exceeded levels recommended for indoor air. Further, it was demonstrated that using a semi-open door to provide ventilation did not reduce concentrations of pollutants to acceptable levels.

A pilot study to obtain 24-hour air pollution exposure profiles

A pilot study was conducted using workers from a semiconductor plant. Describes the methods used to acquire and evaluate air pollution exposure data for significant environments (including workplace, in-transit, and residence) to which workers are exposed throughout a typical 24-hour day. Summer andwinter measurements were made on products of combustion, radon, respirable particulates, and a variety of organic compounds including methylene chloride.

Pollutant and pollutant concentrations encountered in various indoor environments.

Reviews the present state of knowledge of indoor pollutant concentrations, their time dependence and their relationship with indoor sources, energy conserving measures and indoor activity patterns. Pollutants of primary concern are organic compounds, respirable suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide and allergens. Assesses knowledge of carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, radon and infectious agents. Reviews typical concentrations of carbon monoxide, asbestos, mineral fibres, ozone and sulphur dioxide in residences. Concludes that a systematic assessment of indoor air quality is warranted.

Room air contaminants and their health hazard. Huoneilman epapuhtauksien terveydellisesta merkityksesta.

In dwellings and similar spaces with limited volume, dilution of indoor air contaminants may be insufficient. The concentration of contaminants in the inside air depends partly on the rate of emission into the room, partly on the ventilation and the concentration of impurities in the outside air. Sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, ozone and lead compounds occur in higher concentrations in the outside air, whereas nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, benzpyrene (from tobacco smoke), formaldehyde and dust have higher concentrations indoors.

Comparison of concentrations over 24 hours of SO2 and of dark smoke inside and outside a building as a function of its occupation. Comparaison des concentrations de 24h. de SO2 et des fumees noires a l'exterieur et a l'interieur d'un batiment en fonction

Measurements of dark smoke and SO2 concentration made inside and outside a school showed no significant difference in the case of smoke but SO2 concentrations indoors were only 71% of those outside. Holiday periods, when the buildings were unoccupied gave similar results to those periods when thepupils (non-smokers) were present.

The effects of energy efficient ventilation rates on indoor air quality at a California High School.

Reports measurements of indoor air quality in an air conditioned California High School over a range of ventilation rates, ranging from 13.3 cu.ft. of outside air per minute for each classroom occupant to approximately 1.5 cfm per occupant. Parameters measured include outside air supply rate, theoccupants' perception of indoor air quality, microbial burden, concentration of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, O3 in two classrooms, a hall and outdoors.

Indoor air pollution in Rotterdam homes.

Reports study of 800 paired samples of indoor and outdoor smoke and SO2 concentrations of 60 Rotterdam homes. Finds that smoking increased the amount of smoke found in living rooms and the data suggest that newer houses tend to have less SO2 in the living rooms than older houses. On average living rooms contained approximately 80% of the smoke and 20% of the SO2 measured simultaneously outdoors during 24 hour periods. Estimates probability of having more SO2 in the living room than outdoors is less than 2%.

Indoor/outdoor air quality relationships

Reports measurements of air pollutants inside and outside three pairs of structures for different seasons of the year. Four pollutants were measured, suspended particulate, soiling particulate, carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Describes instrumentation and gives results. Concludes that in homes withgas heating and cooking, the heating system has no effect on CO levels but gas stoves had a significant effect.