Describes the thermal model available, both simple and complex and outlines capabilities and limitations. States that all of the models have limitations for use in standards, including the accuracy of the physical simulation and the accuracy of the inputs to the model. States that the biggest limitation is probably the accuracy with which comfort perceptions can be related to the physiological variables simulated in the thermal models.
Describes the current design standard BS EN ISO7730 - 'Moderate thermal environments - determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort'. States that it is based on Fanger's work and comprises a steady-state human heat balance model that leads to a prediction of the sensation of human thermal comfort for a given set of thermal conditions. Questions the applicability of this standard when confronted with the more complex environment of a chilled ceiling operated in combination with displacement ventilation.
Explains the origin and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort. Considers several recent developments in the application of the theory and the origin of the differences between adaptive thermal comfort and the 'rational' indices. Explores its application to comfort standards and makes recommendations about the best comfort temperature, the range of comfortable environments and the maximum rate of change of indoor temperature. Also mentions the application of criteria of sustainability to thermal standards for buildings.
A new adaptive comfort standard is included in recently accepted revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55 - 'thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy'. The new standard allows warmer indoor temperatures for naturally ventilated buildings during summer and in warmer climate zones. The paper summarises the research carried out to formulate this new standard, presents some of the findings for naturally ventilated buildings, and discusses the standardization process. Suggests ways to use the ACS for the design, operation and evaluation of buildings and for research.
Describes existing ISO standards and current projects concerning thermal comfort. Describes the production process for ISO standards. Considers the existing EN ISO 7730 thermal comfort standard in these terms and also ISO 8996 (metabolic rate0 and ISO 9920 (clothing). Also presents the work of ISO/TC 159 SC5, 'ergonomics of the physical environment'. Gives a detailed presentation of the proposed revision of EN ISO 7730. This will be based on requirements for general thermal comfort, operative temperature and local thermal discomfort.
Reviews several key aspects of ventilation and indoor air quality standards. Also highlights the complexity of the IAQ issues from the standardization viewpoint. Detailed technical solutions are dependent on project-specific criteria including climatic, cultural and other aspects as well as differences in national regulations, standards, guidelines and available IAQ technologies.
States that many environmental parameters need to be considered when assessing the quality of the air in an indoor environment, with an emphasis on clear definitions. Outlines the factors that determine IAQ and provides guidance on how to design an appropriate sampling strategy for organic compounds in the vapour phase. Reviews the present state of development of European and international standards for methods of measurement of indoor air pollutants.
Energy Performance standardisation and legislation is receiving an increased interest in many countries. The paper is split up in 3 parts: An overview of the present status: which countries have such regulation in force or under preparation, what is the link with European standardisation? What are the challenges for achieving an effective EP approach? What are important on-going activities?