Schools: All problem buildings?

Seven schools underwent an energy audit, evaluating the existing situation through measurement and simulation and looking to possible retrofit measures and their economic feasibility with the energy performance tool (EPB) as an instrument. The results are troubling. The seven schools audited are all problem buildings: hardly any insulation, windows quite air leaky, central heating systems poorly designed and no usage of an on purpose installed ventilation system.

Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ventilation Rates in Schools

In the following, measurements of CO2 levels in seven classrooms in four schools are reported. Measurements were taken for approximately one week in each classroom during the heating season and the time-varying ventilation rates estimated. The results of the experiments show CO2 concentrations which are far beyond the guideline value of 1000 ppm (the average concentration during the occupied period was 1957 ppm). In some classrooms the level exceeded the range of the detector (4000ppm).

Baseline indoor air quality pollutant characterisation in five United States schools.

This paper summarizes baseline results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) school demonstration studies. Indoor pollutants of concern were formaldehyde, sum of targeted volatile organic compounds o:VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10), and bioaerosols (bacteria, fungi, and thermophiles). The five schools presented here had no significant indoor air quality problems. Locations of these schools were distributed throughout various climate zones in the United States.

A dynamic model for single sided ventilation.

The aim was to develop a simple dynamic model for predicting air exchange caused by short time single-sided ventilation and necessary window opening time in classrooms. Tracer gas measurements have been made in a full-scale room. The comparison indicates that the model can be used when rough estimates of air exchange are of interest.

Moisture damage in schools - symptoms and indoor air microbes.

The association of moisture damages of school buildings with microbial indoor air quality and health status of school children was studied. To determine the association the school buildings (N=32) were divided into the moisture damaged (index) and non-damaged (reference) schools according to technical inspection data. Children's health surveys were made by questionnaires. Microbes were determined from indoor air of school buildings using a six-stage impactor. Children in the index schools reported more respiratory symptoms compared to children in the reference schools.

The measurement of indoor environmental parameters in a newly started and refurbished school.

The aim of the study was to follow changes in allergens and airborne particles in the indoor environment during the first year in a newly started school. The building is from the sixties and was refurbished during the summer to be made suitable as a school. New internal walls and some new flooring were installed, and walls and ceilings were redecorated. Most of the furniture, textiles and lamps are new. Samples for allergen determination were collected by sampling settled dust with a vacuum cleaner. Airborne allergens were collected by a newly developed method involving an ionisator.