Air pollution is not just a phenomenon associated with urbanization and industrialization. It is possible that the principal exposures to several important pollutants occur in rural areas of developing countries where the population relies on biomass fuels for their energy needs. These fuels have large emission factors for particulates, CO and a range of hydrocarbons. Rural studies have found very high BaP concentrations. Effects on health have not been researched, but can be assumed to be similar to urban occupational air pollution effects.