This study highlights the presence of dominant source/s of several VOCs and theirgeographical similarities and differences within European Union (EU) and Singaporebuildings. Concentrations and emission rates of 2-methylpentane and heptane are higher inEU buildings as compared to the ones in Singapore. Also, lower alkanes are observed to behigher in levels in EU buildings as opposed to the higher alkanes, which are more dominant inSingapore buildings with statistical differences approaching significance.
The research emphasized on typical characteristics of interior decoration material, decoratedarea and relative influence factors to consider about the contaminants concentration of TVOCand formaldehyde in Taiwan. This study conducted complete diagnosis and measurement insix office buildings including 16 different types of office rooms in 2001. In this survey, thecharacteristic of the space, types of building materials used, properties of decorated area andthe room volume were all considered.
This study theoretically investigates the impact of air velocity and temperature on the sourceand sink behaviour of porous building materials, by applying the analytical model proposedin Part I. The impact of air velocity on the source and sink behaviour was investigated forvarious levels of material properties. The Reynolds number was varied from 102 to 105,which is equivalent to an air velocity from almost stagnant to 0.34 m/s when the material is4.5 m long.
Evaluating the VOC source and sink behaviour of porous materials is important for thedetermination of the VOC concentration levels in indoor air environment. The transfermechanisms involved in the source and sink behaviour are the same, but the mass transferis in the opposite direction (i.e. from material to air for source, and from air to material forsink). This paper presents a mass transfer model that can be used to predict both sourceand sink behaviour of porous materials.
Before starting a French nationwide survey, a pilot study was conducted in 2001 on 90dwellings in three geographical areas (North, East and South of France). This survey includedmeasurements on 40 priority indoor parameters (VOC, NO2, CO, CO2, bacteria, moulds,allergens, MMMF, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics,occupants description and time activity diaries. The paper focuses on the chemical levelsfound in dwellings.
This study reports the attained indoor air quality in new buildings when using different M1-classified finishing materials and ventilation systems. It is practical to use the TVOC value asa reference in comparing material emissions, their effect on indoor air quality and infollowing the effect of different parameters on the indoor air quality. But is TVOC a relevanttool from the health point of view to be used in characterizing the indoor air as the singlecompounds contained in the TVOC value do have very different effects on the health andperceived indoor air quality?
Unique means to evaluate IAQ with passive sampling devices are described in this paper.They are simple, silent and require less equipment. Field measurements in a newlyconstructed, multi-family residential building were conducted with these means and theresults show the effect of ventilation, occupancy and interior finishing on IAQ. Indoor airconcentration, emission rates from indoor surfaces and ventilation rate were measured bypassive sampling methods. The ADSEC method was used for emission measurements. ThePFT method was used for measurement of the ventilation rate.
A material emission database was developed for 48 building materials based on ASTM testmethods. The database consists of model coefficients for the five to six most abundant volatileorganic compounds (VOCs) emitted from each building material. A power-law model wasused to describe the emissions from dry materials including particleboard, plywood, orientedstrand board (OSB), solid wood, gypsum wallboard, acoustic ceiling tile, vinyl flooring,underpad and carpet.
The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds were measuredat 40 residences in three cities of China (30 from Chengdu, five each from Changsha and Beijing).Indoor, outdoor and personal exposure samples were simultaneously collected at each site. The average concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene, especially benzene, were significantly higher than those of other countries both indoor and outdoor. There is significant correlation between indoor concentration and personal exposure of VOCs and carbonyl compounds.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a matter of public concern in Brazil. An IAQ survey wasconducted in an office building and in a commercial bank in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Indoorand outdoor air of offices was analysed due to the possibility of causing adverse effect on thehealth of the occupants. Measurements were made in a day during working hours. Sampleswere collected for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total volatile organic compounds(TVOCs), aldehydes, total particulate matter (TPM) and microbiological analysis.