Laboratory trials were performed in order to search for the variety of the production ofmicrobial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), which could be used as indicators for hiddenmould damage. Concerning the MVOC production the experiments showed a dependency onthe building materials used as substrate and on the genus or species. It could be proved thatthe production of certain MVOC is not consistent at all times. On the whole low emissionrates in terms of g h-1 of the MVOC were found.
Thirty classrooms in 10 schools in Shanghai, China, were investigated in winter. Dust wascollected by vacuum cleaning, analysed for ergosterol, muramic acid, and 3-hydroxy fattyacids (LPS) by tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS). Airborne microoganisms weresampled on Nucleopore filters (CAMNEA). The compound 1-octen-3-ol was found in higherconcentrations in indoor than in outdoor air. Total indoor bacteria were positively correlatedto both LPS and muramic acid in settled dust. Indoor and outdoor air contained many viablespecies.
Especially in new buildings we could find striking concentrations of MVOCs and we couldnot localize mould damage. We first supposed that some MVOC components are not specificfor microorganisms but normal VOC from new materials. But very often the mould dogmarked walls and floors spacious in new buildings where we detected MVOC in the indoorair.To obtain information if new materials contain microorganisms, we analysed gypsumboard, Styrofoam and mineralic insulation material for fungi and bacteria that we purchasedin three different hardware stores.
The indoor environment is dynamic in nature, in particular, because of various emissionsources contributing with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Indoor air pollution is aconsequence of increased use of synthetics as building materials, cleaning and renovation ofbuilding process, constructing airtight buildings to reduce energy costs and inadequateventilation efficiency. VOCs are ubiquitous in indoor air and by far the largest group ofpollutants.
VOCs concentration measurements in six hospitals were conducted, using passive samplers,in order to get outlined information on the IAQ. Most of the toluene, xylene, ethel benzeneand styrene concentrations obtained from 158 points were lower than the detected limit.Concentrations of formaldehyde and toluene measured at each point exceeded the guidelinevalues. Concentration of xylene obtained from two points also exceeded its guideline value.TVOC concentrations by in-depth measurements obtained from 53 points out of 55 werelower than the determination limit, 200g/m.
An Integrated Zonal Model was developed to predict the three-dimensional airflow andcontaminant concentration distributions in a room. This model integrated a zonal model withmaterial emission/sink models. This Integrated Zonal Model was applied to a mechanicallyventilated room to simulate airflow pattern and VOC concentration distributions. Results werecompared with prediction made by a CFD model. It was found that the Integrated ZonalModel could provide sufficiently reliable results and some global information regardingairflow pattern and VOC distributions within a room.
Thermal and moisture performances of whole buildings are rather well understood today andvarious models exist for simulating those. However, models for calculating VOC emissionsfrom or through building envelope parts are still rare and often need specific materialproperties for each transported compound.
The results of an investigation into the capacity of the indoor potted-plant/growth mediummicrocosm to remove air-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which contaminate theindoor environment, using three plant species, Howea forsteriana Becc. (Kentia palm),Spathiphyllum Schott. Petite (Peace Lily) and Dracaena deremensis Engl. Janet Craig arepresented. The VOCs selected were benzene and n-hexane, both common contaminants ofindoor air.
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), emitted from building materials and othersources in the indoor environments, are likely to be bound to particulates due to theirrelatively low vapour pressure. While toxic metals and biological pollutants in house dusthave been investigated in several studies, little work has been done to detect SVOCs. In thispaper, the preliminary results on the screening of SVOCs in house dust in selected sixresidential homes are presented. The dust particles (
Exposure data from the EXPOLIS study was used to compare the contributions of indoor andoutdoor sources to personal exposure to selected VOCs (TVOC, benzene, xylenes,ethylbenzene, nonane, decane, undecane, alpha-pinene and 3-carene) in Athens, Basel,Helsinki, Oxford and Prague for non-ETS-exposed individuals. Indoor sources were found tobe the largest contributors to personal exposure to TVOC, terpenes and alkanes. Theircontribution was also important for aromatics, including benzene in Basel and Prague.Workplaces contributed only marginally to the median population exposures.