Multicriteria Characterization of Adaptive Comfort Variables in Office Buildings

Analytic models and static approaches as the case of Fanger, Deval, Sherman, Gagge, and Stolwijkmodels cannot completely predict indoor thermal comfort. Building designers could take advantage of adaptive approach of thermal comfort which can account for the complex interaction betweenoccupants and their environment that could affect their comfort.We had carried a field study in two office buildings on March 2005. It has included physicalmeasurements and questionnaires on thermal perception and appreciation.

Distribution of Contaminants in the Occupied Zone of a Room with Personalized and Displacement Ventilation

A distribution of contaminants from floor covering, exhaled air and human bioeffluents was examined in a mock-up of a typical two-person office by means of tracer-gases. The distribution was studied with two types of air terminal device for personalized ventilation combined with displacement ventilation. The results show that the type of personalized ventilation and its use affects the distribution of contaminants to a great extent, as does the type and location of contaminant sources.

Transmission of Exhaled Air between Occupants in Rooms with Personalized and Underfloor Ventilation

Air exhaled by occupants may carry infectious agents and be one way of transmitting respiratory diseases in rooms. The exposure of occupants to exhaled air was examined at two different throw heights of underfloor ventilation combined with two types of personalized ventilation by means of full-scale experiments. The concentration of exhaled air from one occupant was measured in air inhaled by another occupant who used or did not use personalized ventilation.

Air quality evaluation in the space with personalized ventilation and different occupant distributions

For the application of personalized (PV) in practice, it is important to recognize its performance under realistic conditions as they apply in rooms. In this paper results of both CFD simulations and laboratory measurements are reported regarding the local ventilation effectiveness with personalized ventilation. It was observed that the personalized air influences only a limited microenvironment at the workstation. Then a new model was proposed to evalate the indoor air quality in the entire space with varied distributions of occupants.

Analysis and design of micro-climate around the human body with respiration by CFD

This paper first describes the analysis results of flow and temperature fields around the human body.Thanks to various examples, it is made clear that CFD has developed into a very effective and powerful tool for analysis and design of healthy indoor environments.

Best practices for underfloor air systems

The number of Underfloor air systems (UFAD) has incresed 40 % between 1995 and 2002, thanks to the benefits it offers : lower churn costs, improved IAQ, lower energy costs, potential to reduce floor-to-ceiling heights. But knowledge of how to apply the technology is not widespread.
Design phases, construction and commissioning phases of the UFAD project are presented along with a paragraph on the importance of educating building occupants on UFAD.

Pollutant dispersion in a large indoor space : Part 2 : Computational fluid dynamics predictions and comparison with a scale model experiment for isothermal flow

This paper reports on an investigation of the adequacy of CFD for the predicting isothermal pollutant transport in a large indoor space with simple geometry, no furniture and no occupants. Agreement between predictions and experimental measurements was good.

Pollutant dispersion in a large indoor space : Part 1 - Scaled experiments using a water-filled model with occupants and furniture

In this paper a detailed scaling analysis of a water tank experiment designed to model a large indoor space is presented, along with experimental results obtained with this model to assess the influence of furniture and people in the pollutant concentration field at breathing height.

Numerical modelling of radiative heat exchanges between the human body and surrounding surfaces

In this paper, the development of a radiation module coupled with a previous 3D-CFD code is described. This module takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the active surfaces, including those relative to the occupants.

Creating healthy buildings: early design stage and handing over are crucial

Regrettably, buildings often do not perform as expected or wanted by the users. Especiallywith regard to indoor environment, dissatisfaction is occurring frequently.