Continuous monitoring in occupied residences of air contaminants from unvented combustion sources

Continuous monitoring of NO, NO2, CO, CO2, and O2 depletion was conducted in 14 residences (13 with kerosene space heaters and one without) in two locations in the residence (room with the heater and bedroom) and outdoors. The continuous monitor

Characterization of residential air pollution from unvented kerosene heaters

Investigates the generation of pollutants from unvented convective and radiant kerosene heaters in a residence over a 3 month period. The measured concentrations of carbon monoxide were low. However, under the conditions of use which were studied concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, and CO2 reached or exceeded levels recommended for indoor air. Further, it was demonstrated that using a semi-open door to provide ventilation did not reduce concentrations of pollutants to acceptable levels.

An investigation of operational factors that influence emission rates from gas appliances

Reports the result of investigation of the impact of various operational factors on trace combustion products emission rates from unvented gas appliances including ranges and space heaters. The impact of the following factors on the indoor NO, NO2 and CO emission rates were evaluated under controlled conditions in an environmental chamber - 1) the appliance typeand/or design, 2) the primary aeration level, 3) the fuel input rate, 4) the time dependence of emission rates, and 5) the presence of absorbing surfaces such as wood, plaster board, curtains, carpets, linoleum and plaster.

A pilot study to obtain 24-hour air pollution exposure profiles

A pilot study was conducted using workers from a semiconductor plant. Describes the methods used to acquire and evaluate air pollution exposure data for significant environments (including workplace, in-transit, and residence) to which workers are exposed throughout a typical 24-hour day. Summer andwinter measurements were made on products of combustion, radon, respirable particulates, and a variety of organic compounds including methylene chloride.

Modeling and measurement of pollutants inside houses in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Mathematical models for predicting indoor pollutant levels are being developed and compared with measured concentration in three residential dwellings - a relatively new townhouse constructed according to rigid energy-conservation guidelines,

The IEA project on minimum ventilation rates. IEA-Projekt 'Minimale Luftungsraten'

The minimum fresh air requirements needed for perfect indoor air quality are being studied and these will form the basis of the Swiss Guidelines for Ventilation. An optimization between the need to reduce heat loss and fresh air requirements for health is the aim. Pollutants in indoor air, such as formaldehydes, radon, carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates, have to be considered.

Indoor environmental quality performance of a radiant-type ventless kerosene heater - pilot study in a single family residence.

Describes tests made in a single-family house to examine the overall effects of the kerosene heater in situ. Results indicate that in a tight house, maximum NOx concentrations can be higher than the ASHRAE and EPA air quality standards for continuous NO2 exposure and can approach the ASHRAE standard for24 hr exposure of NO. In some cases the NOx concentrations could be reduced to below the standard NO2 values by opening a window. Results show that average 24-hr NOx concentrations approach the standard NO2 value in a tight house when the heater is operated for 6.2 hrs.

Pollutant and pollutant concentrations encountered in various indoor environments.

Reviews the present state of knowledge of indoor pollutant concentrations, their time dependence and their relationship with indoor sources, energy conserving measures and indoor activity patterns. Pollutants of primary concern are organic compounds, respirable suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide and allergens. Assesses knowledge of carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, radon and infectious agents. Reviews typical concentrations of carbon monoxide, asbestos, mineral fibres, ozone and sulphur dioxide in residences. Concludes that a systematic assessment of indoor air quality is warranted.

The effects of ventilation on residential air pollution due to emissions from a gas-fired range.

Shows the usefulness of a model for extrapolating environmental chamber results on pollutant emissions from combustion appliances to determine indoor pollutant concentrations in actual residences. Investigates the effects of infiltration, whole-house ventilation, and spot ventilation on pollutant levels. Results show that a range hood is the most effective means of removing pollutants emitted from a gas-fired range; removal rates vary from 60%-87%.

The influence of ventilation on indoor/outdoor air contaminants in an office building.

Studies a modern energy efficient office building in a series of experiments with mobile laboratories connected on-line with the building. Measures inorganic air contaminants (CO, CO2, NO2). Makes off-line measurements of volatile organic con