Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Fri, 02/07/2020 - 09:37
Traffic sources contribute a large portion of the ambient nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and ozone concentrations, the three ambient air pollutants with the largest impact on human health in Europe (EEA, 2018). High spatial resolution air quality data capturing the high spatial variability of this traffic related pollution are necessary in order to inform policy. The approach of environmental protection agencies around the world to measure using expensive monitoring stations allows monitoring in high temporal, but not spatial, resolution (Snyder et al., 2013).
Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Wed, 01/29/2020 - 14:37
As newer homes are being built tighter than the existing housing stock, questions have been raised about the concentrations of pollutants of concern in new homes and how mechanical ventilation systems can address this issue. This study measured pollutants of concern in 70 new homes with mechanical ventilation in California, USA and compared the results to a previous study of home without mechanical ventilation. The key pollutants were measured using both time-integrated and time-resolved over a one-week period and included formaldehyde, PM2.5 and NO2.
Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 15:33
Substantial energy is used to condition the air that enters California homes through leaks in the building envelope and ductwork - typically about a third of all heating and cooling. Reducing this through air sealing is essential to California achieving zero energy homes. However, this outdoor air also dilutes pollutants emitted inside homes and contributes to a healthy indoor environment and acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). To address this IAQ issue, California’s Title 24 Building Standards have required mechanical ventilation in new homes since 2008.
The report summarizes information on indoor pollution by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) In European countries participating in the concerted action "Indoor Air Quality and Its Impact on Man" (COST project 61 3). Major scope of the report IS to give concise information to people involved In research planning, policy making and regulatory activities and to help to identify a European view of the issue. The summary includes a short review of health effects of NO2 and of existing air quality guidelines and standards.
Many homes in New Zealand are poorly constructed and maintained for the climate with inadequateheating resulting in winter temperatures that frequently fall below the World Health Organisationrecommended level of 18C. Approximately 30% of New Zealand homes are heated by unfluedportable gas heaters. To investigate the link between the indoor air environment and respiratory healtheffects in children, we studied 409 households that used unflued gas heaters or electric heating andhad an asthmatic child.
A children's day care centre in Finland was the site of a study on the effect of ventilation and air filtration systems on indoor air quality. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO, NO2, TSP and PM10 were measured using automatic nitrogen oxide analysers and dust monitoring. Nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from traffic penetrated easily in the absence of filters.50%-70% of nitrogen oxides were excluded with chemical filtration. At holidays and weekends, the particle levels fell less than 10% of the outdoor level, rising to 25% on weekdays.
Efficient control of ventilation systems needs information on indoor air pollutant concentration. But most of the time, the pollutant concentration is not measured. However, outdoor air pollution forecast models are becoming operational and a relation between outdoor and indoor pollutant concentration may be used to predict pollutant concentration peaks and to infer recommendations to reduce its value . A prediction model of the outdoor/indoor air pollutant transfer, based on experimental data, was obtained using multiple linear regression.
Gas cooking in the home can release high levels of nitrogen dioxide (N02) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study investigated the effect of various ventilation strategies to reduce personal exposure to these pollutants. It considered the effectiveness of windows, a kitchen extract fan and trickle ventilators for different dwellings, occupant behaviour, environmental conditions etc. Strategy selection was based on the need to minimise both personal exposure and energy loss. These strategies were simulated using BRE's BREEZE multi-zonal computer code.