Conclusions from ten years of Canadian attic research.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) conducted a series of attic research projects from 1988to1997. Initially, there were few field test data to substantiate how attics dealt with air and moisture transfer. The CMHC research developed a test protocol for attic airtightness and air change testing and then proceeded to field testing of a variety of attics in different climatic areas. An attic model, ATTIX, was referenced against test hut data and used to simulate attic performance across Canada.

Large-scale physical model studies for an atrium smoke exhaust system.

This paper presents results of a project initiated by ASHRAE and the National Research Council of Canada. The project applies both physical and numerical modeling to atrium smoke exhaust systems to investigate the effectiveness of such systems and to develop guidelines for their design. In this paper, results were obtained from a series of tests conducted using a large-scale physical model.

Modelling energy use in UK buildings: statistics showing the way forward.

The present Government has a target for reduction of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions of 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2010, which is in fact greater than the legal commitment set at the Kyoto summit on climate change in December 1997. Energy use in buildings accounts for approximately half of tl1e UK's annual carbon dioxide emissions and thus a reduction in the energy used in buildings is vital for this target to be achieved. A detailed knowledge of how energy is currently used is essential for assessing the potential for reducing the UK's C02 emissions.

Infiltration load in cold rooms.

A two dimensional model was developed to predict the infiltration load to a cold room through its doorway. The governing equations were derived and transformed into dimensionless form. The model showed that the infiltration load to a cold room depends on three dimensionless parameters: the Grashof number of the cold room, the aspect ratio of the room (height to width), and the opening ratio (height of doorway to height of the room). 1\ finite difference technique with a control volume approach was used to solve the governing equations.

A lighting, thermal and ventilation (LTV) design tool for non-domestic buildings in tropical and subtropical regions.

The paper reports on progress to date on the development of a model for predicting energy use and the effect of conservation strategies in non-domestic buildings in the tropic and subtropics. This model considers lighting loads (L), both artificial and daylight, thermal loads (T) and ventilation effects (V). It is hoped, that when completed in late 1998, the model will provide a Lighting, Thermal, and Ventilation (LTV) advocacy tool for use in the early stages of the design processes of engineers and architects. This will provide vital feedback to the early design decisions.

The use of sunspaces in Portugal.


Thermal comfort in indoor and outdoor transitional spaces of buildings in Bangkok.

Thermal comfort in transitional spaces of buildings is established from a field study conducted in the cool season of Bangkok, Thailand. IL involved 302 indoor subjects occupying either air-conditioned or naturally ventilated environments and 291 outdoor subjects who were leaving the indoors. The data were analysed by using a calculating method, "Griffiths" values, giving neutral temperatures, and a quadratic regression for thermal acceptability.

Building ventilation: a pressure airflow model computer generation and elements of validation.

The calculation of airflows is of great importance for detailed building thermal simulation computer codes, these airflows most frequently constituting an important thermal coupling between the building and the outside on one hand, and the different thermal zones on the other. The driving effects of air movement, which are the wind and the thermal buoyancy, are briefly outlined and we look closely at their coupling in the case of buildings, by exploring the difficulties associated with large openings.