Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Tue, 03/22/2016 - 09:25
The long term exposure to fine particulate matter with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) is linked to numerous health problems, including chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In dwellings, a primary emission source of PM2.5 is cooking, an activity conducted several times per day in most households. People spend over 90% of their time indoors and more time in their homes than any other type of building. Therefore, they are at risk of exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 emitted by cooking if these particles are not removed at source.
The efficiency of an exhaust system is especially important in a kitchen environment in which the exhaust is located at ceiling level. The capture efficiency of the total system must be guaranteed so that the spread of impurities throughout the kitchen is prevented. A capture efficiency model is derived and it is used to estimate the efficiency of a ventilated ceiling.
This study presents the results obtained when Computational Fluid Dynamics is applied tocalculating the flow in a domestic kitchen hood at operating conditions. Special emphasis has been placed on parametric modeling of the geometry to permit the rapid modification of fundamental parameters, such as the number of blades and the twisting angle. The governing equations (mass, momentum, energy and turbulence) have been solved using the commercial code, Fluent.
The main goal of this work is the modeling of the flow field and temperature distribution in thekitchen of a house where natural ventilation techniques were implemented. The Fluent 6.1 commercial CFD software was used. The k- e turbulence model and the Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy were employed. The heat released from a water heater in continuous operation dictates the temperature distribution in the kitchen. Several simulations were performed by varying the boundary conditions and seeking agreement with the available experimental data.
The capture efficiency of the total system must be guaranteed so that the spread of impurities throughout the kitchen is prevented. A capture efficiency model is derived and it is used to estimate the efficiency of a ventilated ceiling. This paper demonstrates that a simple equation that includes the average contaminant level in the occupied zone and the exhaust concentration could be a suitable platform for capture efficiency analysis in both measurements and simulations.
Amongst various sources of polluting substances the open space gas-range have an impact onthe quality of living spaces. Carbon-dioxide and nitrogen-oxides occurring during burning considerably impair the air quality. Emission of polluting substances has been examined in the Laboratory of Air Quality of Dept. of Building Service. The results of the research supported by the Ministry of Education (T0375 96) will be presented here.
This paper reports experimental study of air quality in the kitchen of the CSTB experimental house MARIA. These experiments are transition between measurements in an experimental cell and in situ measurements. Indeed, ventilation conditions are controlled via either a hood or via a mechanical ventilation at the exhaust. The kitchen studied is also equipped with a pan on an electric cook-top which temperature is controlled. However, unlike measurements in test cells, wall temperatures cannot be controlled. Impact of cooking vapour on indoor air quality is analyzed using a tracer gas (SF6).
The ventilated ceiling is a flexible solution for kitchen ventilation where the heat loads arerelatively low and aesthetics is a concern. The use of hoods is an ideal solution for locallyhandling contaminants produced in concentrated areas. Thus, special attention should betaken on the ventilated ceiling which removes air at the ceiling level. The simulationsconducted show that the capture jet improves the total effectiveness of the ventilated ceiling.Indoor air quality is enhanced in an energy efficient manner.
There is an increasing evidence of air related sickness among infants and housewives in urbanIndia due to the use of liquefied petroleum gas. An attempt has been made in this study, tomonitor kitchens of 13 houses in the city of Jaipur for possible residential indoor air pollution(IAP), i.e. carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and respirablesuspended particulate matter generated during cooking. The role of the exhaust fan as aninexpensive means to dissipate these gases of combustion has also been studied.
In the UK, the pressure to improve fire prevention in catering establishments has for some years come largely from the insurance industry. Kitchen operators needed to better manage their extract ventilation systems. All cooking equipment forms a potential source of ignition. BSRIA has then compiled a document presenting a method for fire risk assessment of catering extract ventilation.