During winter periods in four types of newly built terraced dwellings and in apartments of a flatbuilding,the daily behaviour and motivations of the inhabitants with respect to airing and ventilation have been studied. In total the information was obtained from 279 households. A combination of verbal interviews, diaries and technical measurements are used as methods of investigation. On basis of the findings,calculations can be made about air flows in occupied dwellings.
The paper describes the main results from a research project performed by "The Mobile Laboratory of Indoor Climate Measurements" one of the five mobile laboratories of the Institute. The aim of the project was to investigate if undesirable consequences occurred in the indoor climate when using an energy saving method consisting of reducing the mechanical exhaust from the "wet rooms" to app. 40 per cent of the normal performance during 12 hours of day and night.
After years of intensive studies on indoor air pollution sources, pollution levels, condensation effects, building airtightness, and air change rates, we are now at the point to discover that no solution whatsoever to the ventilation problem is possible if compatibility with user comfort and user habits are not properly taken into account. User compatibility of aventilation strategy under todays conditions in dwellings must in fact be understood as a requirement equivalent to the purely functional ones of pollutant removal and of economy.
Describes tests made in a single-family house to examine the overall effects of the kerosene heater in situ. Results indicate that in a tight house, maximum NOx concentrations can be higher than the ASHRAE and EPA air quality standards for continuous NO2 exposure and can approach the ASHRAE standard for24 hr exposure of NO. In some cases the NOx concentrations could be reduced to below the standard NO2 values by opening a window. Results show that average 24-hr NOx concentrations approach the standard NO2 value in a tight house when the heater is operated for 6.2 hrs.
Briefly reviews ways of reducing levels of pollutant in the house. Concludes that the best method is to ensure adequate ventilation. Considers how this can be done whilst still conserving energy including the use of mechanical ventilation systems with heat exchangers in tight houses. Concludes that making houses tighter as an energy conservation measure should be approached with caution, as the identification of indoor pollutants and the introduction of indoor air quality standards is still in its infancy.
Presents a mathematical model of the formaldehyde concentrations in rooms containing particle boards with known emission rates of formaldehyde. Tests the model in 3 rooms in a new house. Finds agreement within +-15% between calculated and measured formaldehyde concentrations in the rooms before painting and without furniture, carpets etc. Concludes that the combined mathematical model and the analytical method may be suitable for the classification of particle boards according to their emission of formaldehyde and for predictions of formaldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment.