In the framework of a project of the International Energy Agency (IEA) , IEA-Annex XVIII - Demand Controlled Ventilating (DCV) Systems, which started in fall 1987, a review of the state of the art of already existing DCV systems and devices has been undertaken by all participating countries. This paper is concerned with air quality sensors which may be suitable to control air quality on demand. The dominant contaminants are not only variing in different kinds of buildings (dwellings, schools, stores etc.) but also from room to room due to different ways of utilizing the spaces.
Mechanical ventilation systems have been adopted in airtight energy- efficient houses in Canada to provide fresh air, remove moisture and indoor pollutants and provide a comfortable environment for the home-occupants. Homes constructed under the R-2000 Home Program are equipped with mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Since 1984, the performance of approximately 700 R-2000 Homes has been monitored on an annual basis. This monitoring has included the measurement of indoor levels of formaldehyde and the documentation of ventilation system operation.
An element-assembly formulation of multi-zone contaminant dispersal analysis theory is described. In this approach a flow system is idealized as an assemblage of mass transport elements that model specific instances of contaminant mass transport in the flow system. Equations governing the mass transport phenomena modeled by each element are expressed in terms of contaminant concentration variables, the nodal concentration variables, that approximate the contaminant concentration at discrete points, the system nodes, in the flow system.
The importance of the climate to general health and wellbeing has long been understood. The ultimate goal for planning, building, renovation and administration of the housing stock is to satisfy people's needs. When this goal is not attained, the results will be human sacrifices, social problems and losses to the national economy. This, of course, also applies to the issues of climate and the environment. Research and development work on these questions is nothing new for the Swedish Council for Building Research (BFR).