Indoor air quality and thermal comfort studies of an under-floor air-conditioning system in the tropics.

Gives a report on thermal comfort and IAQ studies of an under-floor air-conditioning (UFAC) system in a hot and humid climate. In order to predict the airflow pattern of the supply air jet and to determine the occurrence of thermal stratification in the office room, thermal comfort parameters were measured at predetermined grid points within an imaginary plane. The authors also used Fanger's thermal comfort index to detect the occupants' thermal sensation, and measurements were made of the concentration levels of dust and carbon dioxide.

Air conditioning and mortality in hot weather.

The National Death Index was used to monitor a cohort of 72,740 persons for whom information on household air conditioning was available, between April 1980 and December 1985. 2275 deaths occurred. The study attempted to establish whether people in households with air conditioning experienced lower death rates during hot weather. Both central and room air conditioning were considered.

Respiratory disease among military personnel in Saudi Arabia during operation Desert Shield.

Th is paper exmined whether US military personnel during Operation Desert Shield were adversely affected by respiratory disease due to crowded living conditions and high levels of suspended and blowing sand. The research was based on a questionnaire given to 2598 combatants stationed in North East Saudi Arabia for a mean of 102 days. Surface sand was analyzed from seven locations by scanning, electron microscopy and X Ray diffraction.

Air conditioning and health: effect on pulse and blood pressure of young healthy Nigerians.

This research studies the effects of air conditioning on blood pressure and the heart rate. It is based on studying the blood pressure and pulse of 32 young healthy Nigerian volunteers after they had been in an air-conditioned room from between 60 and 90 minutes. The same measurements were made under the same conditions with the air-conditioning switched off. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 115.3 +/- 11.5 mm Hg with air conditioning (AC) and 108.5 +/- 10.1 mm Hg without air conditioning. This difference was statistically significant.

Hyperpyrexia due to air conditioning failure in a nursing home.

States that heat stress decreases the chance of survival for the elderly and sick. Cites examples of an eightfold increase in expected mortality for persons over 85 years and threefold for those 50-54 years old. Suggests that chronic degenerative disease in the elderly, certain therapeutic drugs and lack of acclimatization are additional risk factors.

Heat wave mortality in nursing homes.

In order to determine the impact of heat waves on nursing home occupants and the efficacy of air conditioning in reducing them, a study investigated patterns of mortality in eleven air conditioned and nine un-air conditioned nursing homes in New York City. On the basis of the findings, recommends that nursing homes and other institutions for the elderly located in climates like that of New York City be required to provide air conditioning.

Natural ventilation of the housing in hot and humid climates: some suggestions for the design of urban blocks.

The study aimed to identify the behaviour of wind in the type of urban blocks usually found in cities in tropical climates. The results presented here were obtained in colonial type areas. The authors' approach was to establish a relationship between the clusters of buildings and the evidence of overpressures or low-pressure in proximity to the openings of occupied spaces. A prominent physical feature of natural ventilation is the maximal difference of pressure between windward and leeward building facades.

Natural ventilation of buildings.

This study investigates the viability and cost effectiveness of natural ventilation in Istanbul. A typical high-rise office building was used for the investigation together with detailed local weather data including average temperature, wind speed and wind directions for each month of an average year. Data and methods provided by ASHRAE is used to calculate the air pressure at a particular window taking into account wind speed and direction, outside temperature, height and the building's location. The study uses a simple computer program to do this.

Indoor air quality, ventilation and energy studies in hot and humid climates.

Considers how ventilation provision affects the indoor air quality in tropical climates, and the energy aspect. Describes a series of research projects aimed at obtaining a detailed database of IAQ, ventilation and energy measurements, carried out in Singapore in the mid to late nineties. Obtained the overall energy consumption of a dedicated air handling unit that served the zones in which the relevant IAQ and ventilation measurements were done. Presents the results for five air conditioned buildings in Singapore.

Natural cooling of buildings.

Natural cooling has an important role in decreasing fuel consumption in buildings. The design is mainly directed at reducing heat gains. The following elements are part of the passive precautions taken: window direction, type of fenestration, window surface areas, outside wall construction, inside thermal mass, thermal insulation, shades, and building configuration. The evaluation of these parameters and of natural cooling's feasibility is done by computer simulation. The article describes a computer program devised for this purpose.