Exhalation of radon-222 from building materials

Reports some results of field measurements of radon levels in apartments and houses and shows that summer measurements with high natural ventilation rates are generally lower than winter measurements. Suggests exhalation of radon from building materials can be studied by placing samples of material in closed vessels and following the growth of activity in the vessels. Shows that a ventilation rate of one air change per hour will lower the theoretical maximum level to 0.008 of the unventilated maximum value.

Ventilation requirements in relation to the emanation of Radon from building materials.

Radon is a radioactive gas which diffuses naturally from all mineral based building materials. States for most homes, concentration of radon is approximately inversely proportional to the ventilation, although this is not valid for very low or very high air change rates. Gives brief results of measurements of concentration of radon in dwellings. Outlines health risks from radon and daughters. Reviews norms laid down in some countries for specific situations. Discusses ways of reducing radon concentrations.

Health aspects related to indoor air quality.

Reports findings of a working group on health aspects related to indoor air quality. Identifies main air pollutants generated both outdoors and indoors. Considers adverse health effects of indoor pollutants. Concludes that ventilation rate is the important factor in the health concerns discussed. Finds a lack of valid health data on the indoor climate. Recommends further studies.

Influence of the mode of ventilation of heat losses from buildings due to ventilation. Einfluss der Luftungsform auf die Luftungswarmeverluste von Gebauden.

With improved thermal protection of buildings proportion of ventilation heat loss has grown until it now accounts for 50% and more of total building heat losses. Since ventilation cannot be reduced below certain limits for comfort and hygenic reasons, selection of appropriate type of ventilation system is increasingly important to control heat losses. Describes characteristics and consequences for heat energy consumption and hygiene of constant ventilation and abruptly increased ventilation such as window opening etc.

Radon and ventilation - Radon och ventilation

Describes background to natural radiation in building materials and particular aspects of radium decay which produces radon. Notes human lung capacity to absorb airborne particles and associated health risks. Illustrates diagramatically different particle sizes retained in various sections of human respiratory system. Suggests methods to avoid exposure to decay products: avoid materials with high radium content and maintain low radon concentration through sufficient ventilation. Graph shows concentration of radon in relation to air change rate.

Ventilation requirements

Discusses fresh air requirements and tolerable levels of contamination from various sources within a space. Explains the calculation of dilution rates. States that in summer the rates required will generally be higher than those derived from theinformation given because of the need to reduce temperatures in non-air-conditioned buildings and gives method for calculation of ventilation rate required.

Ventilation in relation to toxic and flammable gases in buildings.

Discusses toxic and flammable gases and vapours that lead to hazards in buildings. Examines trends in accidental deaths in the home in England and Wales from gas poisoning. Discusses influence of buoyancy on the dilution by ventilation air of accidental leaks of toxic and flammable gases and shows where buoyancy dominates layers can readily form. Presents theoretical results for controlling gas hazards in buildings by ventilation for a wide range of practical situations.

Impact of reduced infiltration and ventilation on indoor air quality

Notes that reduced infiltration and ventilation rates in buildings can lead to higher levels of indoor air pollution. Discusses three indoor-generated pollutants : nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and radon. Suggest ways of circumventing increased health risks without compromising energy conservation considerations, including setting standards for minimum levels, filtering recirculated air and sealing source material.

Ventilation, health and energy consumption: a status report.

U.S. ventilation systems have been reported to require as much as 50-60% of total energy consumed in buildings and have become popular targets for energy conservation methods. Notes serious concern that arbitrary changes to codes and standards are being proposed in the name of energy conservation which could jeopardise health, safety or welfare of building occupants. Traces evolution of ventilation codes and standards in us.Treats difficulties encountered with measurement and direct control of indoor air quality. Notes common guide values for air contamination used.

Draught free housing requires comprehensive solution of indoor climate problems. Lufttata hus pa ratt satt kraver helhetslosning av inomhusklimatet

Stresses importance of building draught-free housing to conserve energy. This poses problems for heating and ventilating engineer. Lists effects on microclimate. Explains interplay between freedom from draughts and ventilation. proposes a list of terms with definitions related to infiltration and draught prevention.