Discusses the symptoms and compaints of the occupants of unhealthy buildings. Compares the availability and sensitivity of building sensors to human sensitivity for the full fange of indoor air contaminants. Refers to the difficulty of assessing pollution using occupant questionnaires. A simple equation for determining contaminant concentration is presented and ventilation standards are discussed.
Sources of radon and the high levels of radon in many locations and building materials in Sweden are considered. Improvements in energy conservation through the reduction of ventilation rate have lead to very high levels of radon over 1000 BqRnD/m3 in some houses. Recommendations on acceptable levels of gamma radiation on building sites and radon concentration in dwellings are given. It is estimated that there are 30-40,000 dwellings over the Swedish recommended limit of 400 BqRnD/m3 requiring modification.
An estimate of the variation of non smokers' lung cancer risk from passive or involuntary smoking is given as a function of ventilation rate in a typical office, at an occupancy of 7 persons/100m2 as specified under ASHRAE standard 62-1981.
There have been considerable efforts to estimate risks to health from the present level of indoor air quality. However, there has been comparatively little work to relate these calculated risks to other risks of energy use or conservation, or to determine how large these risks will be in the future. This paper finds that, on the basis of extrapolated trends, risk associated with changes in indoor air quality in the United States. The other two are associated with the expected change to smaller automobiles and the entire coal fuel cycle, from producing electricity to synthetic fuels.
Although indoor pollution is a greater problem than outdoor pollution, much less research has been devoted to it. Describes the sick building syndrome and an experiment (as distinguished from an opinion poll), comparing a diagnosed sick and a clean modern Swedish preschool. Forty eight previously unexposed subjects were tested in two buildings for two days, and the effect of the exposure was assessed.
Within the last ten years, energy shortages, economic pressures, and changes in indoor environmental requirements have resulted in buildings that are more energy efficient but less forgiving, environmentally. These results indicate that energ
Reviews some of the factors which cause indoor air pollution. Includes a general introduction to the subject, lists of prevailing air pollutants and their sources, detailed data from research and stnadard methods of air analysis, a study of the relationship between indoor pollution concentration and health effects and current regulatory trends, especially in the USA.
Reports on symposium in Belgrade, 1978, on the consequences of blocked and contaminated ventilation ducts. Notes current research by Swedish Building Research Council into hospital ventilation systems and other work on aspects of contamination and its effect on efficiency. Also reports on investigations into ventilation in housing. Diagrams illustrate various parameters and the effect of cleaning and contamination on airflow and efficiency. Considers economic periodicity of cleaning. Stresses importance of cleaning heat exchangers. Article concludes with a subject bibliography.
Health problems have occurred after the introduction of building regulations with stricter requirements for airtightness. Reviews work done to improve problems associated with the thermal environment and human heat balance, building and installation conditions; the chemical environment and human awareness of pollutants; medical aspects; radon radiation; microbiological conditions; energy savings, air quality and efficient ventilation; thermal insulation and airtightness; static electricity and toxic gases from building materials and the problems of low ventilation rates.
Discusses radon risks in housing and carcinogenic effects. Compares background radiation as part of our natural environment and the effects of radon gas on building materials. Notes effects of reduced ventilation designed to reduce energy consumption and its influence on the frequency of cancer.