Describes the monitoring of indoor air quality in a San Francisco office building where occupants had registered eye, nose and throat irritation complaints. Data was taken under two different ventilation rates. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, odour perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate, and other pollutants generally showed very low concentrations, which increased when ventilation was reduced.
Briefly reviews sources and types of air contaminants common in tight houses. Covers four indoor pollutants - carbon-monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas stoves, particleboard plywood and urea-formaldehyde from insulation, and radon from various building materials.Suggests ways of lowering pollutant levels without compromising energy conservation considerations.
Reports survey of indoor climate problems in dwellings. Questionnaires were distributed to 424 families who had complained of indoor climate problems and 240 replies were received. The questionnaires dealt with complaints relating to the dwellings and the age, profession, health and smoking habits of theoccupants. The dwellings are described by type, age, material of outer and interior walls, ceiling and floor. There are questions on ventilating habits, cleaning habits and occupants' views on dust, noise, odour, temperature, humidity and draughts.
Air pollution from combustion of fossil fuels can be injurious to health causing damages to air passages. Discusses health risks caused by radon emission in houses. Tables illustrate expected effects of exposure todifferent pollutants, causes of death, 15 years cumulative mortality data, mortality distribution comparison between UK and Sweden, risk of lung cancer caused by radon exposure, and effects on health caused by energy saving methods.
Notes one of the principal ways in which members of the public receive natural irradiation is by breathing the decay products of radon 222. Reviews data on radiation exposure and the incidence of cancer for uranium miners. Discusses uncertainties and inadequacies in the data. Gives estimates for the incidence of lung cancer in the general public, caused by radon exposure.
Reports some results of field measurements of radon levels in apartments and houses and shows that summer measurements with high natural ventilation rates are generally lower than winter measurements. Suggests exhalation of radon from building materials can be studied by placing samples of material in closed vessels and following the growth of activity in the vessels. Shows that a ventilation rate of one air change per hour will lower the theoretical maximum level to 0.008 of the unventilated maximum value.
Radon is a radioactive gas which diffuses naturally from all mineral based building materials. States for most homes, concentration of radon is approximately inversely proportional to the ventilation, although this is not valid for very low or very high air change rates. Gives brief results of measurements of concentration of radon in dwellings. Outlines health risks from radon and daughters. Reviews norms laid down in some countries for specific situations. Discusses ways of reducing radon concentrations.
Reports findings of a working group on health aspects related to indoor air quality. Identifies main air pollutants generated both outdoors and indoors. Considers adverse health effects of indoor pollutants. Concludes that ventilation rate is the important factor in the health concerns discussed. Finds a lack of valid health data on the indoor climate. Recommends further studies.
With improved thermal protection of buildings proportion of ventilation heat loss has grown until it now accounts for 50% and more of total building heat losses. Since ventilation cannot be reduced below certain limits for comfort and hygenic reasons, selection of appropriate type of ventilation system is increasingly important to control heat losses. Describes characteristics and consequences for heat energy consumption and hygiene of constant ventilation and abruptly increased ventilation such as window opening etc.
Describes background to natural radiation in building materials and particular aspects of radium decay which produces radon. Notes human lung capacity to absorb airborne particles and associated health risks. Illustrates diagramatically different particle sizes retained in various sections of human respiratory system. Suggests methods to avoid exposure to decay products: avoid materials with high radium content and maintain low radon concentration through sufficient ventilation. Graph shows concentration of radon in relation to air change rate.