Studies the daily behaviour with respect to heating, use of windows and ventilation in newly built identical houses in Oosterhout, Netherlands. The houses have external walls of brick with cavity insulation, double-glazed windows and natural ventilation, with a gas burner furnace in the loft for heating and hot water. 57 occupants were interviewed and 41 filled in hourly log-books during 14 days recording people at home, thermostat setting, periods of open windows and trickle ventilators in the different rooms, use of radiator valves and position of doors inside the house.
A reduction of infiltration and ventilation rates by a mere 1% would reduce annual US energy costs by about 300 million dollars. Infiltration and ventilation activities are an important part of the comprehensive energy conservation research policy of the US Department of Energy. The starting point for this policy is an analysis of how energy is used in buildings, starting with an examination of the buildings themselves. Summarizes US research and future activities.
This paper reports a case study dealing with the relation between ventilating and airing behaviour and the outside climate. Also the significance of other variables such as preferences with respect to the indoor climate are considered. An indication is found that wind speed correlates, but outside temperature (varying from -3 to +9 degrees C) does not correlate with the length of time the windows in the bedrooms and bathrooms are opened. Rainfall and sunshine also seem to have some influence. The main reason for airing is the opinion that the bedrooms are too warm and not fresh.
At present, there are many design and investigatory methods(often supported by computer programs)that take account of the reaction of the building and its heating and cooling systems to outdoor conditions as they vary with time. This makes it desirable to have some agreed sample of weather to allow contrast and comparison between various methods
for predicting building and system behaviour, and between individual design cases to be on a common basis.
The proposals below although evolved from work in the authors' establishments have been discussed more widely and
The aim of this research effort was to develop a mathematical model and digital computer program for accurately calculating the energy required by residential housing units. This model was used to establish an accurate procedure for determining the monthly and seasonal energy requirements of alltypes of residential structures. The mathematical model and digital computer program developed were verified by extensive calculations and field measurements applied to nine residential dwelling units.
Reports study of energy consumption of typical house in Texas. Computer-based model was used to simulate house under different conditions of insulation, infiltration, shading and operation. Gives tables of results of variation in energy use. Finds comparison between "wasteful" and "conservative" home. Shows 56% decrease in annual energy consumption.Concludes that energy saving measures would be cost-effective.
Describes computer-based method of calculating heating or cooling capacity of a building, or energy consumed or natural temperature reached without air conditioning. Assumes steady state conditions and establishes heat balance in the form of a matrix separating climatic and occupancy effects. Presents intermittent heating dynamic calculation in non-steady state conditions. Treats causes of uncertainty building use, climate data, air infiltration and presents calculation programs developed in building physics laboratory of Liege University.
Proposes general method to identify contribution of resident-dependent effects to observed variability of energy consumption in similar houses. Method assumes that in addition to records of energy consumption over time, there is access to information about date of change of occupants. For data on TwinRivers, New Jersey, shows that the role of resident-dependent effects dominates the role of effects that depend on structural variations over which residents have no effective control.
Discusses measurement of energy consumption and the large number of factors to be studied. Presents detailed measurements for two blocks of flats in Sweden taken partly during 1971/72 and partly during the oil crisis of 1973/74. In one of the two projects major savings were achieved by adjusting the heating system, reducing the room temperature and reducing the mechanical ventilation. About half of the savings made in the energy used for heating and ventilation (40%) resulted from reduced airing of rooms.