Building services accounts for some 40-50% of the UK's consumption of primary energy. The potential for energy saving through the adoption of such schemes as district heating, combined heat and power, heat pumps and solar energy could make a major contribution to the country's energy balance.
This paper reports the results of measurements of inside surface temperatures on a basic double window arrangement consisting of two sheets of glass surrounded by insulated construction. Principal variables were air space width, height, and overall temperature difference. Carefully controlled natural convection conditions were provided on the warm side, with forced convection on the cold side. Results were also obtained for the average surface to surface thermal conductance of each configuration.
This report describes a technique which models the infiltration process for an entire enclosure more accurately than standard methods. Both air flow and convective/conductive heat transfer are accounted for to (a) improve building heat load calculations, (b) determine the important characteristics of existing (and new) buildings for infiltration heat loads, and (c) account more accurately for wind effects.
Describes airing habits based on observation of windows of 50000 rooms in terraced housing and blocks of flats. Compares the results with observations in other countries. Derives an expression giving the fraction of indoor-outdoor temperature difference. Calculates from this information the average energy losses in Sweden due to airing.
States that windows and doors are the biggest source of energy loss in a house. This happens by air infiltration, conduction and radiation. Covers ways of cutting these energy losses to a minimum, including weatherstripping, installing storm doors and incorporating an air lock into the entrance door design.
Reviews methods of energy conservation in factories. States that excessive infiltration is unlikely to be the cause of high energy consumption, but that the most significant loads imposed by infiltration probably occur through open loading bays. Suggests the installment of double door lobbies to overcome this. Says the ideal factory heating system would include mechanical ventilation, with outside air mixed with warm "roof level" air. Describes potential sources of energy wastage and ways of rectifying this situation.
States that the reduction in energy losses due to reduced air infiltration is often overestimated because the effect of open windows is not taken into account.< Shows that the habits of airing are rather similar in some European countries. The proportion of windows open or ajar is inversely proportional to the indoor- outdoor air temeperature difference over a large interval of this temperature difference.< The proportionality constant seems to take a value that is independent of the building construction or the heating system of the residential building.
As part of a study by the Building Research Foundation on control methods for the thermal quality of homes, research has been carried out into the usefulness and consequences of a measuring method for the determination of the the airtightness of houses. Airtightness measurements were carried out in sixhouses. Data on occurring ventilation was already available from other research. It appears that the pressurization test for the airtightness of houses can be used to determine the thermal quality of the home.
Presents an evaluation of three proposals for the town plan for the Bulltofta district in Malmo in relation to the wind-induced energy losses. Analyses the wind statistics for the particular region and assesses the effects on energy consumption of winds from different directions. Evaluates the suitability of the various town plan proposals in relation to particular high energy loss inducing winds, making allowance for the overall exposure to sun and wind, the surface/volume ratio, building density and building heights.
Discusses use of an instrumented energy audit, as opposed to a walk-through audit. Describes use of the audit to pinpoint infiltration sites. Method used is to depressurize a building and use thermography to locate air leaks. Briefly describes equipment and gives example of an instrumented audit of a residential building. States advantage of instrumented audit is that it gives a quantitative energy analysis as opposed to a qualitative one.