Submitted by Maria.Kapsalaki on Wed, 01/29/2020 - 13:00
In school and office buildings, the ventilation system has a large contribution to the total energy use. A control strategy that adjusts the operation to the actual demand can significantly reduce the energy use. This is important in rooms with a highly fluctuating occupancy profile, such as classrooms and open offices. However, a standard rule-based control (RBC) strategy is reactive, making the installation 'lag behind' in relation to the demand. As a result, a good indoor climate is not always guaranteed and the actual energy saving potential is lower than predicted.
Presents the main features of a preliminary HVAC system project relative to a university complex, based on principles of sustainability. The design involves installation of a cogeneration system. It is proposed to incorporate hybrid and natural ventilation for energy efficiency. Gives examples of architectural designs for the various areas.
States that hybrid ventilation systems use the strengths of both mechanical and natural ventilation strategies. In the absence of many studies of the operational experience or performance monitoring of the systems, an school in Sweden was retrofitted with a hybrid ventilation system controlled by a building energy monitoring system. The main ventilation power source for this system was the six metre high solar chimneys, which were equipped with low-energy exhaust fans to supplement stack effect where necessary.
Describes a study carried out in order to examine the relationships between the ventilation rate and the type of ventilation system on one hand, and objective nasal measures on the other. The method was to carry out a standardised investigation which included acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage at a school. 279 persons at 12 primary schools in Sweden were invited and 84% participated.
Describes a pilot study conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools are linked to a swelling in the nasal mucosa. Fifteen subjects were studied at a school with low air exchange rate, and twelve at a school with high air exchange rate. States that absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation.
Describes a new multicriteria analysis of ventilation during summertime in Europe. These theories are used to determine the best ventilation strategy on a university building, aiming to ensure optimum indoor air quality, occupant thermal comfort, and lower energy consumption when using accelerated diurnal or nocturnal ventilation and/or air conditioning. The article defines the possible actions, then the quality criteria for thermal comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption.
Describes how engineers refurbished the RADA London Stage School, a building only 15 m wide and four stories high. Before refurbishment there was no mechanical ventilation at all, making some areas very uncomfortable to work in. Especially in the three theatres, there are no windows and heavy lighting gains. Natural ventilation was impracticable.
During 1997, an energy efficient building was designed, featuring energy conservation, passive solar heating, natural cooling and daylighting strategies. It is located in the province of La Pampa, in the temperate semi-arid region of central Argentina. The resulting compact design houses takes 634m2 of useful floor area with main spaces. An audience class, two laboratories, four research offices, one simple class and services make up the building. Solar windows are provided for all main spaces, except in the audience class. Clestories contribute to add solar gains and natural lighting.