Within the frame of the IEA Annex 20, laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted in order to study the flow within an isothermal parallepipedic testroom (L x W x H = 4.2 m x 3.6 m x 2.5 m). The air is injected through a complex diffuser (made of 84 nozzles) near the ceiling and is evacuated through a rectangular exit just below the inlet. While other participants to the Annex 20 made measurements on aeraulic testrooms, we used a hydraulic model scaled to the sixth. The parameters were determined according to a Reynolds similitude.
A "HESCO"-type diffuser was selected as an example for the validation exercise in the IEA Annex 20 project (Air flow pattern within buildings). It consists of 84 small round nozzles that are arranged in four rows in an area of 0.71 m x 0.17 m. With the same effective area, the diffuser is simulated by 1, 12, and 84 simple rectangular slots and by the momentum method. In the momentum method, the supply air momentum is set to be that of the 84 small round nozzles. The simulation of the diffuser is incorporated in the airflow computation in a room.
Turbulent flow fields of velocity and diffusion in several types of mechanically ventilated rooms are precisely analyzed both by model experiment and by numerical simulation based on the k-s two-equation turbulence model. The detailed analyses of contaminant diffusion by simulation make it possible to comprehend clearly the structures of velocity and diffusion fields in rooms. The flow fields in such rooms, as analyzed here, are mainly characterized by the inflow jet and the rising streams around it.
Numerical modelling is performed for three-dimensional turbulent buoyant flows emerging from an air diffuser in an air-conditioned, ventilated room. The velocity and temperature distributions of air in the room are calculated, and the calculated results are found to be in reasonable agreement with published experimental observations. Calculations of Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI) for a sidewall grille are carried out for different flow rates of air supply. The predicted ADPI values are found generally to be consistent with the corresponding experimental values.