The heat loss associated with the external fabric of a building has been greatly reduced by the increased levels of modem insulation, but heating losses associated with cold external air flowing into a building via leakage points in the external facade are still a major problem. Some ventilation is necessary but a detailed knowledge of this leakage would enable the major heat loss routes to be blocked. A crack has been studied which has hot air of a known temperature and flowrate passing over it.
The classification of outdoor (ambient) air as fresh for the purposes of ventilation is not always appropriate, particularly in urban areas. In many cities of the world, urban air frequently violates health-based air quality standards due to high ozone concentrations. The degree of protection from exposure to ozone offered by the indoor environment depends on the relationship between indoor and outdoor ozone levels. Existing concentration data indicates that indoor/outdoor ozone ratios range between 10 and 80%.
Reverberant sound excitation and the sound intensity technique have been used for the measurement of the sound transmission loss of narrow slits in rigid walls. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the transmission loss of slit shaped apertures. The measured transmission loss was in good agreement with existing approximate theories over their accepted ranges of validity. However, the effect of viscosity in small apertures was found to be significant and to vary systematically with the dimensions of the apertures.
A set of diagrams for estimating flow coefficients and exponents in the power law flow equation for cracks are presented. The diagrams are primarily intended for those who perform infiltration calculations by hand or by using a computer program for single and multi-zone infiltration and ventilation calculations. The error introduced by the estimation technique is compensated for by means of a correction coefficient with aspecific value in different pressure difference intervals. A computer program performing the calculations behind the diagrams is available for public use.
The sound intensity technique and reverberant sound excitation have been used for the measurement of sound transmission loss through narrow slits in rigid walls. As predicted by theory, the dimensions of the apertures determine the magnitudes and resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss curves. It should thus be possible in principle to size air leakage cracks using the technique described in this paper.