AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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carbon dioxide

Method for measuring the air-flow in buildings. Metod for bestamning av luftstromningen inom byggnader.

Describes method for measuring the direction and volume of air flows in a building with several rooms. The method uses carbon dioxide as a tracer gas produced from dry ice in each room. Over a period of 2-3 hours the concentration of gas in each room is measured every ten minutes. Gives equations for calculating air flows between rooms and some results of tests made on a flat.

The natural ventilation of unheated closed rooms.

Reports investigation of the relative effectiveness of wall gratings and flues as means of naturally ventilating unheated closed rooms. Ventilation rates of several rooms were measured using carbon dioxide as tracer gas and wind speed and direction were recorded. Presents results and finds for the flue, ventilation increased with wind speed irrespective of direction. For grating, ventilation rate increases slowly with size of grating and is dependent on both wind speed and direction. Concludes flue with base opening of 15 sq.ins. is as efficacious as grating having 50 sq.ins.

Hazards from products of combustion and oxygen depletion in occupied spaces.

Reviews hazards from excess carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in poorly ventilated spaces. Discusses ventilation rates needed to keep concentrations below safe levels. Reviews toxicity studies of portable fuel-fired appliances and gives simple guidelines for the use of such equipment.

Method for calculating air exchange in domestic rooms.

Derives equations for the calculation of air-change-rate in a room where carbon dioxide is being produced at a known rate using the measured initial and final concentrations of CO2. Also derives expression for the calculation of air-change-rate with no source of CO2 but a high initial concentration

Ventilation with open windows

Shows need for intermittent high ventilation in dwellings to remove water vapour and odours. Suggests openable windows as the simplest and most common method of ventilation control. Gives air-change-rates in two british houses using carbon dioxide andnitrous oxide as tracer gases, showing the effect of opening windows. Shows that increase in ventilation rate caused by opening windows can be tenfold and is not confined to the room with the open window. Closing of internal doors has a significant effect. Describes investigation of air flow within rooms using smoke.

Experimental studies on natural ventilation.

Analyses theoretically the natural ventilation of buildings. Derives fundamental formula for the amount of ventilation due to temperature difference from Bernouilli's theorem considering buoyancy. Explains physical meaning of friction loss and theneutral zone, derives pressure distribution due to wind from the shape of buildings and the location of openings. Obtains total expression for amount of ventilation due to both temperature difference and wind.

Sash and air-tightness.

The airtightness of windows is an important feature in deciding habitability. in additional to the conventional, the window sashes featuring improved soundproofing and insulation performance have appeared. Summarizes the results of measurements of the air-tightness of these sashes made using carbon dioxide as a tracer gas, as well as double sliding and single sliding windows using actual size samples. Explains experimental apparatus and measuring method.

A tracer gas method for the continuous monitoring of ventilation rates.

Describes how ventilation rates in two houses with recirculating air distribution systems were monitored by injecting CO2 tracer gas into the supply and measuring its concentration in the return air. In one house with solid concrete floor, normal windows and air bricks, ventilation rates were mainly dependent on wind speed. In the other with suspended timber floor and weatherstripped windows ventilation rates were much lower and mainly dependent on internal to external temperature difference.

Ventilation measurements in the Norris Cotton Federal Office Building in Manchester, NH

Reports measurements of ventilation rate in specially designed low energy office building. Air change rates were measured using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas and air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide. Gives tables of results. Discusses analysis of ventilation from CO2 data. Concludes that most of the spaces in the building were operating at or above recommended levels.

Air infiltration in high rise buildings Infiltrace vzduchu ve vyskovych budovach.

Provides results of measurements of air infiltration and natural air movement in 3 high rise buildings (flats, university, offices). Gives measurements of pressure differences at doors and windows and between windward and leeward sides of buildings. Determines air flow through selected rooms by CO2 concentration measurements. States that data have contributed information towards new edition of Czechoslovak standard CSN 06 0210 concerning infiltration heat loss calculation in buildings.

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