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On the determination of the average radon concentration from few-day measurements in buildings

Radon concentration in outdoor air and in buildings is very variable, showing diurnal and seasonalvariations. Long term measurements with track etch detectors lasting up to one year give the mostprecise one year averages. It arrives, however, that we are obliged to get results much sooner e.g. forscreening measurements. How long should we measure radon concentration to get proper results? Wehave studied the problem of selecting proper time interval on the basis of our six long-termmeasurements in Krakw using AlphaGUARD PQ-2000 ionization chamber.

Assessments of glass implanted 210po in Yugoslavian houses: results of an international intercomparison and critical analysis of methods

Measurements of 210Po embedded in glass have been performed with passive detectors in houses ofthree rural communities of Yugoslavia. Field work has been initiated and carried out by the VincaInstitute, Belgrade and analyses have been conducted by SSI (Sweden), UCD (Ireland), NRPA(Norway) and CRR (Italy). Based on 210Po concentration assessments, radon retrospective estimateshave been produced. Fairly good agreement amongst laboratories resulted both for polonium andradon determinations.

Review of qa\qc aspects of electret ion chambers- manufacturing practices and performance in worldwide inter-comparison exercises in the past eight years

Rad Elec Inc., located in Frederick, MD, USA is the only commercial producer of electret ionchambers (EIC) systems. These are distributed under the brand name of E-PERM, electret-passiveenvironmental radon monitors. Different versions of these are used in various applications, whichinclude: measurement of indoor/outdoor radon, thoron (220Radon), radon flux, radon in water, radiumin soil/building materials, environmental gamma radiation, tritium in air and on surfaces, alphacontamination on surfaces and in soil.

Radon flux density measurements on soil surfaces

A method is developed to measure 222Rn exhalation rate on soil surfaces using an ionizationchamber radon monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ2000, Genitron Instruments GmbH, Frankfurt,Germany) in passive-diffusion mode.We have developed a compartmental model to describe time variation of radon concentration in theionization chamber. This model consists of two compartmens, one for the external radon field, andone for the ionization chamber.

Uncertainty, variability and sensitivity analysis applied to the ragena model of radon generation, entry and accumulation indoors

The application of a radon model is useful to understand the processes that drive the radon gasbehaviour from its sources to its accumulation indoors. Since in a given inhabited house the detailedknowledge of the values of all the parameters that affect indoor radon levels is not available, theresponse of the model has to be explored in a reference site in which all the parameters are supposedto be known. We call this site the reference configuration.

A first step towards an integrated approach for modelling indoor radon levels

Radon goes through four stages from its formation until it reaches a living environment: i) itsgeneration in the source medium, ii) its migration in the source medium, iii) its entry into a dwelling,and iv) its accumulation indoors. Many parameters of different origin take part at each stage, and mostof them are time-dependent. In this paper we discuss the requirements that an ideal model, whichconstitutes a Global Dynamic Radon Model (GDRM), should fulfil to predict indoor radon levels inliving areas of inhabited houses.

Seasonal variation of radon concentration - measurements in some european countries

The radon concentrations in indoor air and in soil air vary both on short term (daily, weekly) and onlong term (seasonal). The radon level and its changes depend on a few parameters, which may bedifferent from one building to another and from one type of soil to another. It is important to know theseasonal variation of the indoor radon levels if the level is to be compared with the national upperlimits in Europe for indoor radon concentrations.

In situ gamma spectroscopy to characterise building materials as radon and thoron sources

In situ gamma spectroscopy is widely utilised to determine the outdoor gamma dose rate from the soiland to calculate the natural and artificial radionuclide concentration and their contribution to the doserate. The application of in situ gamma spectroscopy in indoor environments can not supplyquantitative information about activity concentration of radionuclides in buildings materials, but thistechnique can provide interesting information about building materials as radon source.

Challenges in harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union

Possibilities for harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the EuropeanUnion are being discussed in the Working Party on Natural Radiation Sources established by theArticle 31 Group of Experts (Euratom Treaty). The Working Party is preparing a document to aid theArticle 31 Expert Group and the European Commission in considering possible recommendations andtechnical guidance to the Member States for the implementation of the new Basic Safety StandardsDirective concerning the radioactivity of building materials.

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