An investigation of wind forces on three-dimensional roughness elements in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow< Part 3: The effect of central model height variations relative to the surrounding roughness arrays.

Reports a systematic investigation of the wind pressure variations when test models of varying height are surrounded by uniform roughness arrays of various densities in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Describes the effect of the surrounding roughness in shielding the bluff model when the model height is less than the average roughness height and of the degree of exposure experienced by a model taller than the surrounding roughness. Discusses results and gives 24 graphs of pressure coefficients.

An investigation of wind forces on three-dimensional roughness elements in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow< Part 2. Flow over large arrays of identical roughness elements and the effect of frontal and side ratio variations.

Continues an investigation of surface pressures on models in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Part One gave results of measurements on isolated models, Part Two considered the same models in arrays of various densities. Gives vertical distribution of pressure coefficients measured on the centre line of windward and leeward faces of all the models in various layout densities. Discusses the effects of varying layout density, aspect ratio and roughness fetch. Includes 64 graphs of pressure coefficients.

An investigation of wind forces on three dimensional roughness elements in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer.< Part 1. Flow over isolated roughness elements and the influence of upstream fetch.

Briefly surveys past work on wind tunnel measurements on the surface pressures on low rise buildings. Describes experimental investigation of the surface pressures on an isolated model. Discusses results of flow around a model of varying height and aspect ratio, and the influence of upstream fetch on surface pressures. Gives figures showing recorded pressure coefficients and details of pressure tappings on the various models.

Rehabilitation and the building enclosure.

In projects to rehabilitate old buildings in Canada, it is general practice to clear out the entire interior of a building, leaving only the structure and some or all of the exterior walls and roof. The new interior conditions impose more severe loads on the building envelope and hence walls and roofs must be upgraded. Discusses improvement of walls and roofs to increase airtightness, reduce rain penetration and conserve energy use. Discusses the effect of insulation and the location of insulation on the envelope performance and possible types of wall and roof modification.

The variability of test results when assessing the resistance of windows to water and air penetration using BS4315.

Reports a programme of tests of the resistance of windows to air and water penetration. These were intended to assess the variation in the results due to different designs of window, differences between individual windows of the same type, different pressure test boxes, and different test operators. Gives tables of results and finds considerable variation but no single source of the variation. Suggests new test procedure and a statistical criterion for acceptance.

Air flow variation of HVAC caused by stack effect and opening a window.

Unopenable, fixed windows have been widely used in high-rise buildings in Japan, but the energy crisis has forced a reconsideration of the merits of natural ventilation with openable windows. However opening windows inhigh-rise buildings, has the disadvantage that open windows causes air flow variation of a mechanical system due to stack effect.< Reports results of a computer simulation of this problem. Describes computer program to calculate air flows in a building. Describes example building, giving air leakage and HVAC system characteristics.

Investigation of three computer programs for calculation of indoor climate.

Reports comparison of three computer programs designed to calculate room air temperature and heating loads. The programs are:< BRIS - a swedish program using a finite difference method< BYVOK - a norwegian program using the thermal response factor method

An investigation into the air quality of three working men's clubs.

Working men's clubs are commercially thriving organisations catering for a wide range of social activities commonly held in a single room holding 300-400 people. Packaged air conditioning is being introduced into Working Men's Clubs to provide air recirculation and cleaning when the buildings are occupied. Air cooling and dehumidification is also available. One club was dissatisfied and an investigation was started to investigate the difference. Measurements showed that the unsatisfactory installation was unusual in two ways.

Masonry walls.

Discusses masonry walls in relation to the air tightness of buildings. Considers mainly panel walls constructed of concrete blocks. States that in general such walls are very leaky, due mainly to shrinkage of the wall itself and deformation of the surrounding structure. Discusses the addition of insulation to wall, sealing of joints around window frames and at the edge of the floor slab. Gives diagrams showing details of building construction.

Indoor air quality in residential buildings.

Discusses indoor air quality in residences with low ventilation rates. Reports investigation of indoor air pollutant levels in a test kitchen with a gas stove under various air change rates. Results indicate that gas stoves generate high emissions of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and respirable aerosols. Recommends a kitchen ventilation rate of at least 170 cu.m.&h.< Also reports study of CO and NO2 emissions from gas appliances in an energy- efficient research house.