Models for residential indoor pollution loads due to material emissions under dynamic temperature and humidity conditions

The IEA EBC Annex 68 project on “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” has been recently completed. The project considered indoor air pollution loads in dwellings, particularly how such pollutants are emitted in dependency of the hygrothermal conditions: temperature, moisture and air flows. Thus, a proper understanding of the mutual interactions between hygrothermal conditions and pollutants was needed to obtain optimal paradigms for demand-controlled ventilation.

HVAC and VOCs: interaction between building systems and indoor VOC concentrations

HVAC systems in newly built or extensively renovated dwellings were all developed with the aim for energy saving with equal or better comfort. However, these systems (floor heating and DCV systems) have certain characteristics which increase the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and give VOCs the chance to accumulate to higher concentrations. This interaction is investigated based on dynamic simulations using a temperature and humidity dependent VOC emission model. 

Impact of construction stages on Indoor Air Quality

Since the turn of the century, alarming data produced by the Indoor Air Quality Observatory (OQAI) have led to changes in French legislation, including, most notably, the introduction of compulsory labelling for construction products (decree no. 2011-321 of 23 March 2011).

Case-Control study for the Association Between Indoor Environmental Factors and Children’s Health Problems in Japan – Part 2 Results of Measurements during Rainy Season and Winter

In order to clarify the association between indoor environmental factors and children’s health problems, indoor air quality was investigated during the winter and rainy seasons in Japan. The total of 209 houses was classified into case and control groups whether the child have allergy symptom or not. The number of the houses in case and control groups is 133 and 76, respectively. This survey included measurement of indoor temperature, humidity, the pollution of chemical compound and mite allergen (Der 1). These measurements were conducted in the living room and children’s room.

A study on eco friendly furniture for mitigation of the indoor air pollution

Furniture can raise indoor air contaminants with toxic emissions of VOC and formaldehyde.. While furniture is classified as a subject of safety and has quality labeling, there is a lack of domestic regulations related to contaminant emissions with the exception of sinks. When looking at the analysis on environment-related patients related to the smell or odors from furniture every year, patients suffering from asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis are on the rise.

A Long-Term Modelling Study of Ventilation and VOC Distribution in Multi-family Residential Buildings in the Severe Cold Region of China

In this paper, a long-term numerical study which examines the unique airflow pattern and the corresponding VOC distribution within a typical apartment building in the severe cold region of China is described. A VOC model was developed to simulate the time-dependent emission rates with adsorption and desorption. This model was then integrated with COMIS, a multi-zone airflow model. The target VOC for study was benzene. The results show various downward tendencies for benzene concentrations in all the dwellings.

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SICK HOUSE SYNDROME IN FUKUSHIMA, JAPAN

Outbreaks of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) first gained attention in the 1970s in the USA, with thedevelopment of more energy-efficient buildings that depend on mechanical ventilation systems tocirculate fresh air, as well as to control air temperature and sometimes humidity.SBS at office building and so on is not such a severe problem, but, a similar syndrome has beenrecently reported with increasing frequency in airtight new houses in Japan, that is, Sick HouseSyndrome (SHS). We have conducted the survey concerning SHS in Fukushima city, northeast area ofJapan since 2003.

USE OF LIVING POT-PLANTS TO CLEANSE INDOOR AIR – RESEARCH REVIEW

Urban indoor air quality (IAQ) is an international health issue, since city dwellers spend 90% of theirtime indoors. Research by a number of authors is reviewed here, demonstrating a range of capacitiesof indoor plants to improve IAQ and promote occupant wellbeing. Our laboratory studies, with nineindoor plant species, and our field studies in 60 offices, show that potted-plants can reliably reducetotal volatile organic compound (TVOC) loads, a major class of indoor pollutants, by 75%, to below100 ppb. They work equally well with or without air-conditioning, and in light or dark.

A STUDY ON THE VOCS EMISSION RATES OF HOME ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

Home electrical appliances release hazardous chemical substances produced by the effects of heatingduring their operation. The present study investigated the emission rates of chemical substances onhome electrical appliances such as microwave ovens, vacuum cleaners, electric heaters, electricblankets, multimedia players, electronic dictionaries, MD players and notebook PCs.The VOCs emission rates of comparatively small products were measured using a small-scaleenvironmental chamber with a volume of 0.065 [m3].

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF AN AIR CLEANER USING THE ADSORPTION/DESORPTION EFFECT

The objective of this paper is to present the contaminant removal efficiency of a prototype air cleanerusing the adsorption/desorption effect and to investigate the practicality of this air cleaner. Toluene andformaldehyde were used as pollutant sources and were emitted at a constant rate in a test chamber.Effects of the number of sorption units, the operational time and mode on the contaminant removalperformance were examined. Sorption materials that were evaluated were a porous material, zeolite,pumice stone, and hydro-corn.

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