In this paper, analysis of the ventilation requirements of enclosed vehicular parking facilities is discussed. First, a compilation of existing U.S. and international standards and codes pertinent to the ventilation of enclosed parking facilities is presented. Then, the results of a field testing study are summarised to determine the actual ventilation rates and the contaminant levels in seven U. S. enclosed parking garages. Finally, this paper presents a new design method that provides the minimum ventilation rate requirements for enclosed parking facilities.
Forced air distribution systems in residential buildings are often located outside conditioned space, for example in attics, crawlspaces, garages and basements. Leaks from the ducts to these unconditioned spaces or outside can change flows through the registers and change the ventilation rates of the conditioned spaces. In this study, duct leakage flows were measured in several low-rise apartment buildings. The leakage flow measurements and other data about the apartments were used to develop a prototype apartment building.
A small commercial building was monitored before and after energy-saving retrofits to study the impact of retrofits upon ventilation rates, humidity, building pressure, and air-conditioning energy use. Duct airtightness testing identified severe duct leakage as a significant source of uncontrolled airflow. Differential pressure and infiltration measurements using tracer gas indicated an attic exhaust fan as another significant source of uncontrolled airflow. Duct repair resulted in a 31% drop (30.5 kWh/day) in cooling energy and an increase in relative humidity from 72% to 76%.
This review examines the available information relating to the ingress of external pollutants into naturally ventilated buildings. It is part of a project whose longer term aim is to provide guidance on ventilation strategies for naturally ventilated buildings in polluted urban areas. The purpose of the review is to guide this project.
The ventilation in Norwegian residences was studied with respect to the effect of new standards, construction techniques adopted, and energy conservation measures implemented This was compared to residential ventilation performance in other countries with a similar climate. The effective total air change rate (h-1) in 344 residences was measured with a passive tracer gas method known as the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method (PFT-method). The measurements were performed over a 14-day integrated sampling period.
Air movement in a naturally-ventilated room can be induced through the use of a solar chimney or Trombe wall. In this work Trombe walls were studied for summer cooling of buildings. Ventilation rates resulting from natural cooling were predicted using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technique. The renoramlization group ( RNG) k-e turbulence model was used for the prediction of buoyant air flow and flow rate in enclosures with Trombe wall geometries.