Discusses current knowledge concerning wind-induced ventilation in buildings. states major difficulty in estimating ventilation and infiltration rates in a building is ignorance of wind pressure distributions around structures. Examines properties of wind with special reference to mean velocity profiles, characteristics of turbulence and wind energy spectrum. Reviews internal and external pressure distributions on an isolated building. Studies effect of grouping of buildings on pressure distribution around a house by considering results of wind tunnel tests.
Reports study of air infiltration through experimental windows installed in a normal office building. Air change rate was measured using carbon dioxide as a tracer gas. Pressure drop across window, wind velocity and direction were recorded . Finds that air leakage measured was generally quite different from that which could be calculated. Postulates reason for this is complex process caused by dynamically varying pressure differential across the window, flow occurring through window in both directions simultaneously and to particular experimental configuration used.
Discusses how building ventilation is affected both by steady mean effect of air pressures and temperatures around and within the building and turbulent nature of the wind causing air diffusion through openings and cracks in the building envelope. Studies ventilation of an enclosure with a single opening subjected to turbulent impinging airstream. Derives simple theoretical models to assist understanding of physical phenomena causing air-flow through the opening. Compares these with results of experiments on a large-scale model, states need forfurther work on this problem.
Treats 4 mechanisms of building heat exchange with the environment and their effect on overall energy consumption: 1) air infiltration and exfiltration, pressure distributions and gradients and resulting mass transfer at building surfaces; 2) influence on surface heat transmission of turbulent mixing of air close to building surface and mechanisms causing this mixing; 3) how air circulation around buildings strongly affects air conditioning cooling towers and how incorrect location of ventilation inlets and exhausts can reduce thermal efficiencies of cooling equipment and increase fan power