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Space heating at low temperature difference between heating unit and ambient air

Rising energy prices have contributed to the development of heat pump-based heating systems in Sweden. Low flow temperature in the secondary heat distribution system to rooms is a requirement for energy-efficient systems. This increases the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and decreases thermal losses in the distribution system. Flow temperatures in water-based systems for heat distribution in buildings have been decreased from 55C to temperatures around 30C. This is to maximize the efficiency of heating systems that are based on heat pump technology.

Optimisation of insulation measures on existing buildings.

In Sweden, the activity on building new residences has been decreased for a number of years. The building stock as an average has therefore become older and in the future it will be subject for refurbishment. This paper deals with how to optimise retrofit measures, i.e. how to act in order to minimise the Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) of a building. Insulation measures are emphasised but also other retrofits are dealt with such as changing the heating system. It is shown that the heating system has a vital influence on the optimal amount of extra insulation which is to be applied.

Airtightness of buildings, measurements on houses with a very low heating energy consumption.

A basic condition for low energy houses is a demand controlled ventilation combined with an air-tight building envelope. Within the scope of different research projects financed by public grants and measurements effected by private order mainly in the south of Germany, the airtightness in low energy and minimum energy houses has been checked according to the DC pressurization method and the places of leakage have been determined. Considering the results with respect to the recommendations of the SIA 180 (standard of Switzerland), 40% of approx.

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