Predicting natural ventilation forces upon low-rise buildings.

Describes series of wind tunnel investigations leading to development of a procedure for estimating wind pressure forces on low-rise building which is part of a large group of similar buildings. Procedure takes account of geometrical form of building, spacing of buildings, direction of wind and upstream fetch conditions. Gives estimated value as pressure coefficient which may be determined graphically.

Shelterbelt influences II, the value of shelterbelts in house heating.

Describes experiments aiming to estimate the protection afforded by a shelterbelt on the plains area of America. Describes three test houses and gives test results. The three houses were unprotected, partially protected and closely protected by a slat fence. Gives basic data in the form of fuel use, wind and temperature. Concludes that the reduction in wind speed by windbreaks is of the general order of 35% with a proportional saving in fuel. Finds that the area of tree shelterbelts has themost important effect on the degree of wind reduction.

Wind reduction by a highly permeable tree shelterbelt.

Discusses the need for shelterbelts over farmland and gives expression for drag force exerted by a barrier in terms of air density, wind speed, barrier height and ratio of wind speed in the shelter to that in the open. Describes field study to determine the effect of a shelterbelt on vertical wind profiles. Presents two-dimensional wind reduction patterns in the lea of the shelterbelt. Calculates drag coefficients for the shelterbelt. Concludes that a shelterbelt can be very effectivein a very short period after planting.

The effectiveness of an evergreen windbreak for reducing residential energy consumption.

Describes experiment to determine the effect of an evergreen windbreak on residential heat losses attributable to air infiltration. Eight-meter tall pines were arranged as an experimental windbreak to shelter a townhouse for nine weeks Air infiltration was measured continuously using SF6 as a tracer gas to compare air change rates before and after the windbreak. A dimensionless parameter was derived to distinguish between wind-and temperature-produced air infiltration and to determine the effects of wind direction.

A method for categorizing shelterbelt porosity

States that porosity is the most important single parameter describing shelterbelts but is very difficult to measure or define. Describes a method for categorizing wind breaks in terms of porosity using only measured minimum leeward-wind velocity. Gives theoretical expressions for the flow through a porous shelterbelt. Describes experiment to measure wind velocities around shelterbelts of low, medium and high porosity. Shows that wind measurements could be made any height without affecting relative reduction in velocity.

Wind tunnel and on-site pressure distribution measurements on a house and its effects on infiltration

Summarizes measurements made on a flat. These include inside to outside temperature and pressure differences, infiltration rates using helium as a tracer gas, duration of opening windows and doors and weather conditions. Also describes wind tunnel measurements made on a model of the building with and without obstacles and terrain roughness.

The effect of building grouping on wind induced natural ventilation.

States that to obtain accurate estimates of wind induced natural ventilation of buildings the pressure distribution over the building is required. Reviews the available information for isolated buildings and groups of buildings. Gives the results of wind tunnel measurements made on a cuboid when surrounded by buildings of the same shape. Results are presented statistically and indicate that the pressure distribution on a building can be fairly accurately determined provided the density of the built form and the roughness fetch are known.

Wind-induced ventilation in shielded buildings

Notes importance of air motion in shielded buildings in hot and humid climates. Describes wind-tunnel investigations on shielding effect of buildings for a group of buildings comprising parallel rows of identical blocks. Also considers influence of cross-ventilation through shielding building and variations in relative heights of the buildings. Discusses variation of wind speeds inside shielded building related to its distance from shielding building. gives optimum distances of separation for maximum and minimum shielding effect.

A method for the assessment of the wind induced natural ventilation forces acting on low rise building arrays.

Reviews existing methods for the prediction of infiltration rates and the factors influencing the pressure difference across buildings. Describes experimental procedure used in tests conducted in wind tunnel. Discusses results and presents prediction technique which enables surface pressures acting on aparticular building situated within an array of similar low rise buildings to be estimated, procedure takes account of the geometrical form of the building spacing parameters describing the array, direction of the wind and the upstream fetch conditions.

The optimum use of coniferous trees in reducing home energy consumption.

Refers to earlier work by Mattingly, Peters, Harrje and Heisler which indicated the possibility of reducing air infiltration by using sheltering devices such as fences, neighbouring buildings and trees. Reports use of wind tunnel air infiltration model to explore the effect of trees in a windbreak on a model home. Presents results of tests determining the effect on wind-induced air infiltration of the variation of various windbreak layout parameters. Introduces concept of turbulence generation as the mechanism of tree wind sheltering.