Thermal efficiency of the window shade

The purpose of this paper is to find the efficiency of window shades regarding building energy performance and explore the possibility of developing a model that enables users to find proper shades for their specific conditions. The paper investigates different options of shades and their related variables and finds the efficiency of the shades regarding energy load. Each variable was investigated for its effect on the heat loads. Results were used as input variables for neural network prediction model.  A prediction model was developed and trained based on the previous simulation results.

Effects of external shading devices on daylighting and natural ventilation

External shading devices have been utilized very extensively in residential buildings in the tropics to reduce the amount of solar radiation entering into the buildings. However, this will affect the availability of daylight for interior lighting as well as natural ventilation for passive cooling and thermal comfort. This paper discusses the impacts of six different types of external shading device on a residential building in Singapore. The investigation was carried out via the use of LIGHTSCAPE for daylighting simulations and PHOENICS CFD simulations for natural ventilation.

Maximising the energy benefits of urban forestation.

This paper examines key issues involved in evaluating benefits of tree planting programs from the perspective of electric utilities, as well as from a wider perspective of public and private entities that may benefit from such programs. The nation's largest shade tree program, sponsored by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) in collaboration with the Sacramento Tree Foundation (STF), is used as a case study.