A prototype ventilation system for superinsulated houses using forced air duct systems.

The Energy Division is working toward development of ventilation systems capable of providing acceptable levels of indoor air quality in superinsulated houses. The research was designed to analyze and improve the indoor air quality of a superinsulated retrofit house located in St. Paul, Minnesota. The occupants had encountered 'stuffy air' problems after their house was superinsulated and weatherized to reduce heat loss, and uncontrolled air infiltration. High levels of CO2 build up were revealed indoors, despite the presence of a continuously operating air-to-air heat exchanger.

VAV for laboratory hoods - design and costs.

Laboratories with chemical fume hoods can have HVAC systems designed for variable air volume (VAV) for the optimum in safety and cost savings. Various VAV designs are discussed with their associated advantages and disadvantages. Controls for providing VAV operation of fume hoods are outlined. A computer simulation of the energy usage for constant vs. variable volume hood operation is performed. The energy and cost savings are discussed along with a construction cost comparison of constant volume with variable volume.

The dynamics of indoor air quality.

A benchmark study by Geomet Technologies, Inc, is developing data on the air quality effects of weatherizing a home. One effort under this study has bee nhas been an experiment carefully designed to quantify the relationships between the thr

Measured energy savings from residential retrofits: updated results from the BECA-B project.

Summarises measured data on energy savings from conservation retrofits in existing residential buildings, covering approximately 115 retrofit projects in four general catagories: utility-sponsored conservation programmes;low-income weatheriza

Environment and Power: Home weatherization and indoor air pollutants.

A booklet for consumers explaining the effects of house-tightening measures on pollutant levels. It also provides a guide to detecting and controlling pollutants commonly found in homes.

Assessment and control of indoor air quality in a super-insulated, retrofit house.

A single family residence in St. Paul, Minnesota, constructed in 1957, was retrofitted in 1983. This resulted in approximately 50% reduction in annual heating consumption compared to the average consumption over the previous three years. However, the occupants complained of poor air quality. Measurements indicated that total particulates, CO, CO2, relative humidity, and temperature were at levels of some concern; NO2, radon and formaldehyde concentrations were not significant.

Natural ventilation - conditions and means for its improvement in existing buildings.

In new buildings, the requirements for indoor air quality and energy efficiency cannot be met with natural ventilation. In renovations of existing buildings it is, however, often difficult or uneconomic to install a mechanical system. What is often forgotten is that the conditions for natural ventilation will have changed, even if no alterations are made to the ventilation system.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part Two: An approach to natural-like mechanical ventilation of existing buildings.

Describes a new ventilation strategy for retrofitted buildings. The system consists of two units including heat recovery, fan, filter, etc, which are installed in the window openings. They are operated in opposite directions which are periodically reversed. When desired, the unit is stopped and used as an airing panel. In laboratory tests the specified values were achieved. The heat recovery proved so efficient that no air heating was needed even at the lowest temperatures. Some noise and freezing problems were reported.

Ventilation in existing buildings. Part One. Comparative studies of various ventilation systems in old renovated buildings.

Some of the problems for designing ventilation systems for retrofitted buildings are presented. Measurements were taken in two public buildings in Helsinki with three ventilation systems of different types. In these two buildings only a balanced mechanical ventilation system seemed to fulfill therequirements for a satisfactory and healthy indoor environment.

The superinsulation (SI) project.

A research project by the Energy Division is underway to develop and demonstrate appropriate construction techniques for superinsulation (SI) residential construction in Minnesota. Techniques applicable for both new and retrofit SI constructi