AIVC - Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre

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residential building

Methods for conducting small-scale pressurization tests, and air leakage data of multi-storey apartment buildings

The overall air leakage of high-rise buildings cannot be measured using a full pressure method because of the large volume involved. Describes a method of conducting small-scale pressurization tests on the exterior walls of apartments in multi-storey buildings. Gives results of measurements in a test building. compares direct method with values obtained by summing the air leakage of individual components. Finds good agreement. Concludes that floor/wall joints, windows and window sills are the three major air leakage sources in exterior walls.

Air infiltration model for residences.

Treats development of generalised model of hourly air infiltration in residences. Describes its testing. Uses tracer gas measurements of infiltration in 9 research residences inColumbus, Ohio, under widely varying weather conditions. Estimates various linear and physical models against 7000 measurements. Measures and correlates weather parameters. Correlation coefficients ranged around 0.9 with an error between 0.1 to 0.36 air changes. presents Fortran algorithm.

Ventilation requirements in houses and flats. Ventilationskrav i en-och flerfamilyshus.

Reports study of the ways in which different ventilation levels affect people part 1 of the study took place in Gavle. Air change rates, the amounts of radon and its derivatives were measured. Finds that ventilation installations are often poorly adjusted giving a wide variation between flats in the levels of air change. Amounts of radon and daughters were also higher than expected, due mainly to the poor ventilation. Concludes that lowering ventilation to present recommended level of 0.5 changesper hour cannot be recommended without further investigation.

Condensation risk and improved thermal performance of housing.

Considers the likely impact of alternative conservation measures on the incidence of surface and interstitial condensation on or within the elements of the building fabric. Considers specifically domestic buildings in temperate climates such as in the U.K. and Ireland. Outlines the mechanisms whereby condensation occurs and considers broadly the effect of reducing heating levels, reducing ventilation and increasing insulation.

Automated instrumentation for air infiltration measurements in buildings.

Describes automated instrumentation using sulphur hexafluoride as a tracer gas in residential housing to determine rates of air infiltration in houses. Discusses in detail the principles of operation, necessary calibration procedures and early field data. Concentration levels of SF6 are maintained at the partsper million level in the buildings and are measured by sensitive electron capture detectors in conJunction with a gas chromatograph.

The energy cost of humidification.

Points out that energy necessary to humidify air in a dwelling is usually far greater than consequent decreased sensible heat loss. Provides basic information necessary to calculate moisture deficit or surplus due to air exchange. Calculates rate of moisture addition or subtraction from air to house to maintain given humidity ratio. Determines under what circumstances humidification results in net savings of energy, describing factors affecting humidity in typical households. Concludes that net energy cost of humidification varies with each situation.

Ventilation: design considerations

Outlines basic requirements for a fresh air supply to a dwelling, which include health, comfort and air for combustion appliances. Discusses feasibility of achieving these requirements by natural and mechanical means.