Review of indoor emission source models. Part 2. : parameter estimation

This paper is the second part of a study on indoor emission sources models : this part is the compilation and review of 48 methods for parameter estimation.For an useful valid model, estimation of the different parameters of a model must be easy. But the development of methods for parameters estimation is often left for only the development of model, and these models are then not used after their publication.

Validation of CONTAMW predictions for tracer gas in a townhouse

To provide additional validation data for the multizone airflow and contaminant model, CONTAMW, experiments were performed in an occupied 3-story townhouse in Reston, VA. A tracer gas, sulfur hexaflouride (SF6), was manually injected within one room of the house and the concentration of SF6 was measured in each zone. This same process was then recreated in CONTAMW and the resulting predictions were statistically compared to the measured values. A total of 10 experiments were conducted and simulated between May 2000 and June 2001.

TRNFLOW, a new tool for the modelling of heat, air and pollutant transport in building within TRNSYS

Modelling of buildings with natural or hybrid ventilation systems requires the coupling of a thermal and an air flow model because of the strong mutual impact of the thermal and the air flow behaviour. The newly developed tool TRNFlow is the complete integration of the multizone air flow and pollutant transport model COMIS [Dorer 2001] into the thermal multizone building module of the building and system simulation program TRNSYS [Klein 2000]. An internal solver algorithm using

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants with separate ventilation systems for smoking and nonsmoking dining areas

The aim of this study is to compare the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of people in smoking and nonsmoking dining room. Levels of airborne pollutants and changes in urinary cotinine and nicotine levels were examined for 8 restaurants and 97 nonsmoking subjects (employees, patrons and referents).
Levels were significantly lower in the nonsmoking dining areas than in the smoking areas, and for the patrons than for the employees.

Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal

This article is a study of the air quality at a bus terminal. Presence and concentration of indoor air quality indices were determined by field surveys and sampling. Bus emission rates, occupational exposure and ventilation requirements to have a correct indoor air quality were simulated by mathematical model.
The results show that the natural ventilation rates are too low for having a good indoor air quality, and that pollutants emission varies with the temperature.

Dust : a metric for use in residential and building exposure assessment and source characterization

The use of house dust is studied to identify sources and quantify levels of toxicants for the estimation of exposure. Sampling strategies were examined, just as uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The presentation of the results of sampling is also discussed. This article describes case studies.

Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation and reconstruction of older multi-family houses

This study was carried out in nearly two hundred multi-family buildings, built before 1961, in Stockholm. Three thousand inhabitants answered first a questionnaire on symptoms and personal factors. In parallel energy saving measures and building characteristics were gathered. It appeared that major reconstruction of the interior were associated with an increase of some symptoms.

Review of indoor emission source models. Part 1. Overview

This paper is the first part of a study on indoor emission sources models : 52 models of recent years are overviewed, each one is presented, with its validity, usefulness, limitation and flaw if necessary.

Development and application of an indoor air quality audit to an air-conditioned tertiary institutional building in the tropics

This paper is the presentation of the development and application of an IAQ audit methodology applied in tertiary institutional buildings in the tropics. For that study, a staff room and a typical lecture theatre have been selected.The IAQ audit consisted in monitoring thermal comfort parameters. In parallel the staff and students have answered a questionnaire to give a subjective assessment of the indoor air quality.The IAQ results will be then used to develop an IAQ database for institutional buildings in Singapore.

Building materials VOC emissions - a systematic parametric study

This paper gives the description of a four-factor simulation design and a statistical procedure for analyzing material VOC time sensitivities with regard to the following parameter variations : VOC diffusion coefficient, VOC partition coefficient, material thickness, surface air velocity, along with their interaction effects.