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The effectiveness of designated smoking areas in controlling non-smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

Field monitoring was conducted in office buildings in Seattle and Dallas to assess the effectiveness of various workplace smoking configurations in controlling non-smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Simultaneous measurements of vapour-phase and particle-phase tracers of ETS were conducted in adjacent smoking and non-smoking areas. Pressure relationships between smoking and non-smoking areas were determined. The Seattle portion of the study focused on the direct infiltration of ETS from smoking to non-smoking areas, as minimal recirculation of return air was occurring.

Air pollution levels inside buildings in urban areas: a pilot study.

This paper reports the findings of a pilot field study carried out to investigate the internal and external pollution levels in two buildings, one naturally-ventilated and the other air-conditioned and to investigate their relative attenuation of external pollution levels. The study is a precursor to more extensive studies aimed at providing guidelines for the design of energy-efficient buildings with a good indoor environment in urban areas.

Continuous and passive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in UK homes.

The UK Building Research Establishment has carried out measurements of levels of nitrogen dioxide (N02) in 12 homes in the South of England. Two types of detection device were used: the Scintrex LMA-3 continuous N02 analyser and the Palmes passive diffusion tube. NO 2 concentrations were recorded using both devices in the kitchen, living room and a bedroom of each home for a period of a week. Gas cooking was observed to be the most important source of peak concentrations of N02 in the home.

The effect of contaminant source location on worker exposure in the near wake region.

 The exposure of workers in the near-wake region due to a recirculating airflow was studied experimentally and numerically. A mannequin was installed in an open-ended tunnel and tracer gas was released at several locations downstream to determine the size and location of the reverse flow region. The contaminant transport into the breathing zone was found to depend strongly on the location of the release point. The airflow field was also determined numerically assuming a steady 6ow and using the standard k-£ turbulence model.

Managing exposure to indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments.

Sources of indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments can be managed to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, pretreatment, and altering the amount, location, or time of use. Intelligent source management requires knowledge of the source's emission characteristics, including chemical composition, emission rates, and decay rates.

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