Mitigating Occupant Exposure to PM2.5s Emitted by Cooking in High Occupancy Dwellings Using Natural Ventilation Strategies

The long term exposure to fine particulate matter with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) is linked to numerous health problems, including chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In dwellings, a primary emission source of PM2.5 is cooking, an activity conducted several times per day in most households. People spend over 90% of their time indoors and more time in their homes than any other type of building. Therefore, they are at risk of exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 emitted by cooking if these particles are not removed at source.

An epidemic of pneumococcal disease in an overcrowded, inadequately ventilated jail.

States that correctional facilities in the US can be susceptible to outbreaks of respiratory infections due to overpopulation. Risk factors for pneumococcal disease were assessed in a case-control and a cohort study. The jail studied had a capacity of 3500 inmates but housed 6700. Median living area was 34 ft2. Fewer cases of disease were identified among inmates with 80 ft2 per person or more. CO2 levels were over the acceptable level.