A stochastic approach to thermal comfort - Occupant behavior and energy use in buildings

This paper presents the results of surveys of the use of simple controls opening of windows, the closing of window blinds, and the use of lighting, heaters, and fans by building occupants. Information is also presented on the use of air conditioning in mixed-mode buildings. The surveys were conducted in the UK, Pakistan, and throughout Europe. The data are analyzed to show how the use of each control varies with outdoor temperature. The paper discusses the application
of such results to the simulation of occupied buildings.

Operable windows, personal control and occupant comfort

Past research (ASHRAE RP-884) demonstrated that occupants of naturally ventilated buildings are comfortable in a wider range of temperatures than occupants of buildings with centrally controlled HVAC systems. However, the exact influence of personal control in explaining these differences could only be hypothesized because of the limits of the existing field study data that formed the basis of that research. The objective of ASHRAE RP-1161 was to quantitatively investigate how

Occupant responsive optimal control of smart façade systems

Occupant responsive optimal control is developed for so called smart façade systems. The control optimizes the performance of the system by rotating a motorized louver slat in the cavity and ventilation dampers at the top and bottom of exterior and interi


The simulation of adaptable components in the external envelope of a building.

This paper considers the building's envelope in the design phase. Energy related decisions during the design phase have great influence on the life cycle cost of the building. Since sunlight and climate are changing factors, the envelope is equipped with mobile and adaptable components (shading devices, movable insulation, opening window schedules ...) which can react to climatic conditions. Architects use computer aided design tools to describe a building and its envelope.

Natural ventilation and automation with manual overriding are health solution.

The need for individual control with manual overriding combined with controlled natural ventilation is discussed. It is made plausible that with these two facilities problems related with the Sick Building Syndrome can be avoided. This principle is applied in a so-call led passive climate system. A system is devised setting the level of heating and ventilation by controlling motors fitted to radiators, ventilation openings in windows, Venetian blinds and outside shading. Moreover, it will switch on the lighting when natural lighting is inadequate.

Modern passive stack and ventilated schools - evaluation of ventilation and moisture conditions.

The aim has been to determine ventilation rates and risk of moisture damage in three modernschools with passive stack ventilation. The users are supposed to control the ventilation byusing the lantern windows and the outdoor air is assumed to enter through an undergroundduct. The paper presents results, analysis and conclusions from the performed measurementsand calculations.The ventilation rates are sometimes low and vary with the use of the windows in the facadeand the lantern. It is, however, always possible to arrive at a sufficient ventilation rate.

Study on Thermal Comfort of Task-Ambient Air Conditioning System

Task-ambient air conditioning system is one of the systems developed to achieve quality indoor thermal environment and energy conservation simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to find the optimum supply air conditions of floor air outlet required to make thermally comfortable environment in the task area without cold draft. To achieve the purpose were carried out the experiments with subjects, who were allowed to control the supply air volume and the direction of inclined jet according to their tastes.