Spread in energy use in buildings dependent on choice of heating and ventilation system

The energy use in buildings is dependent on the choices made during the design, construction and renovation. The causes for these differences are, among others, caused by the behavior of the occupant of the building and the choice of heating and ventilation system. The European scheme of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) aims at reducing the energy use in the built environment. It is most common to calculate (i.e. not measure) the energy use for the buildings which are affected by the scheme.