Zonal models using loop equations and surface drag cell to cell flow relations.

Zonal models have been proposed to bridge the gap between the whole-building macroscopic modeling methods of programs like CONTAM or COMIS and the more detailed microscopic modeling metho.ds based on solutions of the time-smoothed Navier-Stokes equations for room airflows. This paper identifies a critical shortcoming of conventional approaches to zonal modeling by introducing alternative approaches a) to formulate the key cell-to-cell flow relations upon which zonal models are based and b) to assemble the zonal system equations.

Energy and mass flows of housing: a model and example.

The energy and mass flows required to sustain dwelling services can be established and quantified only within the framework of a stock and flow model of the total housing stock. This paper develops such a model to estimate the energy flows of a typical sub-population of New Zealand housing stock. The energy and mass flows of key building materials are estimated and the energy flows of alternative cladding systems are compared. The stock and flow model is driven by empirical schedules of mortality.

Prediction of Air Distribution in a Ventilated Room

This article examines a solution procedure which can determine the flow in an air-conditioned room. The method is based on the solution of a group of equations for the flow (four non-linear partial differential equations) by means of a numerical method. Comparison with test results indicates that the method studied is suitable for prediction of air movement in an air-conditioned room when the flow is steady and two-dimensional. The method can be extended to give the required information for the evaluation of thermal comfort in the room.

The use of a building enclosure siding as a passive cooling device

The effect of ventilation in the space between a main wall and an exterior siding is examined with respect to reducing the building's cooling load. The buoyant force of the air in the space is considered as the motive force of air flow and the effect is treated as a problem of simultaneous heat and mass-transfer. A simulation program of heat and air flows in a wall has been developed using laminar flow theory, and its validity is examined by thecomparison of the simulation results with a weather exposed full-scale model test.