US standards for manufactured homes are designed to provide adequate outdoor air supply for the buildings. COMTAM96 was used to simulate one of the buildings under different ventilation situations. Ventilation rates and energy consumption were assess in annual simulations in three cities. On the basis of the results, recommendations are made for changes to the standards.
A study of 132 unoccupied and 60 occupied caravans was conducted to determine levels of formaldehyde and factors which may affect these levels. Repeat monitoring was carried out 6 months later in 50 of the occupied caravans. A questionnaire was also used to assess potential factors associated with the recorded levels. Mean formaldehyde levels of 100 ppb in unoccupied caravans and 29 ppb in occupied caravans were recorded. A negative correlation was found between formaldehyde levels and the age of caravans.
US Manufactured homes are required to be built to Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (MHCSS.) The National Fire Protection Association recently updated ventilation standards for manufactured h
This paper documents the energy savings observed for a program operated by the Eugene Water and Electric Board which provided duct sealing for mobile and manufactured homes as its principal measure. Billing data and associated mean outdoor temperature data on more than 400 participants for one or more years pre and post was used as the basis of the savings estimate. The observed savings were used along with site treatment costs to estimate a levelized cost of savings of 12 mills/kWh exclusive of utility management costs.
Modeling of delivery efficiency was performed using three levels of combining measured and default input parameters and compared to measured data from seven manufactured homes. Using values based on all measured data provided modeled efficiency results that were closest to short-term coheat efficiency results. As individual measured parameters were replaced by estimated or default values suggested by the draft version of proposed ASH RAE Standard l 52P, the agreement with measured efficiency results worsened.
Manufactured homes, often referred to as HUD-code homes, are continuing to grow in importance as a national housing resource and represented 23% of all new home construction in 1995. In spite of groundbreaking work to characterize the performance of air distribution systems in site-built housing, in new manufactured homes, the subject has been largely ignored. Field data was gathered from 24 typical new HUD-code homes in four regions in the continental United States. This study describes air distribution system losses estimated through an analysis of system and distribution efficiencies.
Detailed field measurement of air leakage and electric forced-air heating system efficiency in nine Pacific Northwest manufactured homes built to adapted Model Conservation Standards were conducted during the 1994 and 1995 heating seasons. The research measured directly both heat delivery efficiency and system efficiency (as defined by ASHRAE in its HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook) with a short-term alternating coheat test. For this test, a home is alternately heated with the furnace and then with an array of small electric heaters placed in each room which has a supply register.