Influence of office layout and ceiling height on vertical temperature gradient in office rooms with displacement ventilation

An accurate temperature gradient calculation is essential for displacement ventilation (DV) system design, since it directly relates to the calculation of supply air flow rate. Several simplified nodal models were developed and implemented in the various building simulation programmes in order to estimate the temperature stratification in rooms with displacement ventilation. However, the most commonly used models do not count the types and locations of the typical heat loads in rooms with displacement ventilation.