Impact of Clothing, Breathing and Body Posture on the Shaping of a Thermal Plume above a Human

The impact of clothing, breathing and body posture on the thermal plume above a thermal manikin was investigated. Measurements of air velocity and temperature above the manikin were performed at four different heights above a sitting and a lying manikin. The results obtained from tests above the sitting manikin show an inverse proportion between the thermal insulation of clothing and the air velocity in the thermal plume. Air velocity in the thermal plume with the breathing function switched on equalled 90-98% of the values obtained for non-breathing experiments.

Assessment of the Thermal Insulation of the Air Layer with a Movable Thermal Manikin

The assessment of the overall thermal insulation of the air shear layer surrounding a nude humanoid shape, as affected by different step rates, is the main objective of the present study. Step rateswere controlled at 0, 20, 30 and 45 steps/min. The measurements were carried out in a climate chamber with an articulated thermal manikin of the Pernille type with 16 body segments. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficients for the 16 segments and for the whole body were determined for each step rate.

Thermal comfort of seated occupants in rooms with personalized ventilation combined with mixing or displacement ventilation

The performance of two personalized ventilation systems combined with mixing or displacement ventilation was studied under different conditions in regard to thermal comfort of seated occupants. The cooling performance of personalized ventilation was found to be independent of room air distribution. Differences between the personalized air terminal devices were identified in terms of
the cooling distribution over the manikins body. The personalized ventilation supplying air from the

Evaluation of Human Thermal Response in Occupied Spaces Subjected to Direct Solar Radiation

The objective of this work is to evaluate the human thermal response in occupied spaces subjected to direct solar radiation. In this study, done in a full scale compartment equipped with an airconditioning system, a thermal-manikin (to simulate the human body posture), a multi-nodal human

Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants betweenoccupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents andexhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing anddisplacement ventilation. In total, 80 l/s of clean air supplied at 20C was distributed betweenthe ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathingthermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room.

The impact of a uniformly distributed thermal load on mixed flow

The influence of uniformly distributed cooling load is investigated on the air velocity in theoccupied zone. The experiments have been carried out in a scaled test room of 6 6 2 mwith a scale factor 1:1.5. The room is equipped with nine vortex inlets. The inlets areuniformly distributed; every inlet supplies a cubical volume to remove the maximum possiblecooling load with a minimum airflow rate. The air supply rates based on floor area are set to30 m/(h m2). The cooling load generated by mannequins is uniformly distributed and variesbetween 0 and 180 W/m2.

Influence of geometry of thermal manikins on concentration distribution and personal exposure

A number of different thermal manikins have been applied in literature to experimentallystudy the indoor environment. These manikins differ in size, shape and level of geometriccomplexity ranging from simple box or cylinder shaped thermal manikins to humanlikebreathing thermal manikins. None of the reported studies, however, deals with the influenceof geometry of the thermal manikin.

Influence of geometry of thermal manikins on room airflow

A number of different thermal manikins have been applied in literature to experimentallystudy the indoor environment. These manikins differ in size, shape and level of geometriccomplexity ranging from simple box or cylinder shaped thermal manikins to humanlikebreathing thermal manikins. None of the reported studies, however, deals with the influenceof geometry of the thermal manikin.