From a hygienic viewpoint, optimum indoor air quality can be characterized as the complete absence of pollutants. The most important sources of such pollutants are reviewed, including those entering a room from outside, those generated by human activity and those emanating from various materials. Thebasic requirement is for all emissions to be as low as possible. For CO2 and formaldehyde the existing standards are reasonable. For most of the other substances it is not recommended to define tolerable limit values since such definition may decrease the efforts to attain a zero level.
This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader and technical persons, such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers, understand the current state of knowledge regarding combustion so
Reviews literature on indoor air quality in housing, nature of contaminants and their sources, health effects, standards and guidelines, impact of air sealing on indoor air quality, sources of uncontrolled air leakage, airtightness and natural ventilation, airtightness of new and existing housing stock, air change in new and existing housing, impact of air sealing on airtightness and ventilation, indoor air quality in tight houses, impact of occupant behaviour on ventilation, measures to improve indoor air quality, identifying problem houses, indoor pollution control strategies, and ventila
The determination of an acceptable range of humidity is complicated by the conflicting effects of an increase or decrease in humidity levels on the speed of chemical interactions and growth of biological organisms and pathogens that may affect human health and comfort.
The aim of the present study is to measure the possible health effects among tenants after certain characteristic energy conservation measures had been taken in their dwellings. Changes in comfort are also included. It is part of a number of projects on subjects such as indoor pollutant source control and changes in house dust mite populations related to moisture changes in retrofitted dwellings.
Notes the contaminants which may be contained in room air - radon, solvents, tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, dust mites etc. Points out that no definitive threshold values have been established for contaminants representing health hazards. Points out that the reactions of various individuals to them differ widely, determined by a number of factors.
Reviews current knowledge about the sources of a number of indoor pollutants and their concentrations: tobacco smoke, NO2, CO, radon, formaldehyde, SO2, CO2, O3, asbestos, mineral fibres, organics and allergens. Lists the adverse health effects from exposure to each of the pollutants. Finds instrumentation for measuring exposure acceptable, but monitoring and knowledge of distribution of sources and concentrations inadequate or marginal. Knowledge of exposure-effects relationship is inadequate, especially with regard to delayed effects of chronic exposures.
In addition to air quality problems encountered in other sealed buildings, both workers and patients in hospitals may be exposed to very special air contaminant problems. Levels and ranges of a variety of chemical pollutants measured in 16 h
Examines evidence for relating sickness to the office environment. Notes research into the office building syndrome (obs) in various countries. Notes that although air conditioning goes back to the 1920s, obs has been in the news only during the last five years or so. Notes the contribution to this of energy saving regulations. Notes the complex nature of indoor air contamination. Points to obvious factors such as air conditioning systems unserviced for 30 years, occupational psychology, indoor architecture, climatic constance and air ionisation.
As our understanding of human exposure to air pollutants improves, it is becoming increasingly evident that indoor environments play a critical role in determining exposures. However, it is not possible at the present time toestablish the relative contribution of indoor and outdoor sources to personal exposures, nor can the contribution of specific indoor emissions be quantified. To address these issues, a chamber experiment was initiated to measure particulate and organic emissions from important indoor sources.