Classification and characteristics of particular methods of investigations on thermal energy balance in dwelling houses aiming at determination of economy attained owing to modernization measures, are presented in the paper. Guidelines on execution of respective measurements and on working out theinvestigation results are given.
An energy efficiency monitoring programme was carried out from 1984 to 1986 by the South London Consortium Energy Group, United Kingdom Department of Energy, with assistance from British Gas, Watson House, as part of a demonstration project funded by the United Kingdom Department of Energy, the EEC and SLC Energy Group. 18 occupied low energy houses were thoroughly instrumented in order to monitor energy usage and occupant hehaviour.
Good indoor air quality and thermal comfort and good energy-efficiency can be achieved simultaneously only if the amount of ventilation can be demand-controlled. Two approaches are discussed in the article: CO2- control and use of so-called air quality sensors. The first experiments have been promising but further development of equipment is still needed, in order to improve the reliability and economy of demand-controlled ventilation.
Treats major design and construction actions that can be taken in houses to limit conduction losses, increase heating performance, reduce energy losses through windows and provide adequate ventilation air - super insulation, high performance furnace or boiler, high performance windows and controlled ventilation. Discusses in some detail how controlling indoor air pollutants at source is the preferred approach to maintaining indoor air quality. Illustrates diagrammatically and explains how a house functions under natural ventilation conditions.
Development of infiltration and interroom airflow calculation methods, driven by a concern for indoor air quality have led to a computer simulation of interroom contaminant movement. The model, which assumes fully mixed room air, shows that open doorways provide rapid mixing between rooms in buildings using forced air heating. It also confirms that it is most energy efficient to remove the contaminant nearest its source. Detailed modeling of the variations in contaminant concentration within a room is not presently feasible for long term energy analysis simulations.
Factsheet includes useful chart on glazing materials. Gives basic advice on limiting heat loss from doors and windows, together with recommendations for materials and installation, Also deals with the new hi tech windows using heat reflective film, and problems of condens- ation.