Optimal design of all-air systems price sensitivity

This paper shows that it is possible to calculate the optimal outdoor air rate at different outdoor temperatures in the economiser cycle. The price of heat must increase 3 times before the optimal outdoor air rate during heating gets lower than during cooling. The optimal outdoor air rate during heating is determined primarily by the price of heat. The optimal outdoor air rate during cooling is determined primarily by the price of cooling capacity.

Economical impact of improved air quality in office buildings in cold climate

The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system, life-cycle costs (LCC) and benefits of improved productivity were simulated in an office building located in a cold climate when improvements of air quality were made by increasing the outdoor air supply rate and by reducing the pollution loads. The building was ventilated by a variable air volume (VAV) system with an economizer or a constant air volume (CAV) system with heat recovery. The pollution loads were assumed to be similar to those in a non-low-polluting or low-polluting building.

Output gain and investment profitability

A heatlhy environment at work has become a real preoccupation. It began first in offices but now it exists in industry which was reluctant up to now in spending money for it, because the output responsibles were not convinced that such an investment could bring an output gain. A loss of productivity can depend on the ambiant temperature for example.

Feasibility of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings. The impact of energy prices and the acceptable pay back time criterion.

Energy renovation of existing buildings can be of varying value as regards improving thermal conditions and energy savings, and economic restrictions. A series of studies have been done since 1994 in Northern Greece, with its cold and prolonged heating season, aimed at approaching the problem and developing viable proposals. Public and mixed-use buildings act as so-called 'pilot-demonstrator' buildings in the study.

Industrial ventilation owning and operating costs.

It is of prime importance at the design stage that the designer of an industrial ventilation system makes a reasonable assessment as to the owning and operating costs of an Industrial Ventilation System. Armed with these findings the designer must consider what improvements can be made by considering a different approach or by using other types of plant. The designer must inform the owner of the plant of any alternatives.

The owning and operating costs of a system are made up of the following items:

Measuring the real cost of ventilation.


PV - Breaking the solar 'impasse'.